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An Icelandic Primer 

With Grammar, Notes, and Glossary 

By Henry Sweet, M.A. 

This book has been modified slightly from the original to make the paradigm ref- 
erences clear. The original was the second edition, published by Oxford at the 
Clarendon Press, 1895. 

The original page images' were scanned in by Sean Crist^. They were then OCRed 
and reformatted for Project Gutenberg into text, HTML, and TgX by Ben Crow- 
der^. Other versions of the text may be found at the current homepage for the 
primer"* or through Project Gutenberg''. Special thanks to Jonas Oster^ for provid- 
ing the Omega QTP code to fix nondisplaying characters. 



^ crowderb @ blankslate. net 





The want of a short and easy introduction to the study of Icelandic has been 
felt for a long time — in fact, from the very beginning of that study in England. The 
Icelandic Reader, edited by Messrs. Vigfusson and Powell, in the Clarendon Press 
Series, is a most valuable book, which ought to be in the hands of every student; 
but it still leaves room for an elementary primer. As the engagements of the editors 
of the Reader would have made it impossible for them to undertake such a work 
for some years to come, they raised no objections to my proposal to undertake it 
myself. Meanwhile, I found the task was a more formidable one than I had antici- 
pated, and accordingly, before definitely committing myself to it, I made one final 
attempt to induce Messrs. Vigfusson and Powell to take it off" my hands; but they 
very kindly encouraged me to proceed with it; and as I myself thought that an Ice- 
landic primer, on the lines of my Anglo-Saxon one, might perhaps be the means of 
inducing some students of Old English to take up Icelandic as well, I determined 
to go on. 

In the spelling I have not thought it necessary to adhere strictly to that adopted 
in the Reader, for the editors have themselves deviated from it in their Corpus Po- 
eticum Boreale, in the way of separating g from o, etc. My own principle has been 
to deviate as little as possible from the traditional spelling followed in normal- 
ized texts. There is, indeed, no practical gain for the beginner in writing time for 
timi, discarding d, etc., although these changes certainly bring us nearer the oldest 
MSS., and cannot be dispensed with in scientific works. The essential thing for 
the beginner is to have regular forms presented to him, to the exclusion, as far as 
possible, of isolated archaisms, and to have the defective distinctions of the MSS. 
supplemented by diacritics. I have not hesitated to substitute (") for (') as the mark 
of length; the latter ought in my opinion to be used exclusively — in Icelandic as 
well as in Old English and Old Irish — to represent the actual accents of the MSS. 

In the grammar I have to acknowledge my great obligations to Noreen's Al- 
tisldndische Grammatik, which is by far the best Icelandic grammar that has yet 


iv An Icelandic Primer 

appeared — at least from that narrow point of view which ignores syntax, and con- 
centrates itself on phonology and inflections. 

The texts are intended to be as easy, interesting, and representative as possible. 
With such a language, and such a master of it as Snorri to choose from, this com- 
bination is not difficult to realise. The beginner is indeed to be envied who makes 
his first acquaintance with the splendid mythological tales of the North, told in an 
absolutely perfect style. As the death of Olaf Tryggvason is given in the Reader 
only from the longer recension of the Heimskringla, I have been able to give the 
shorter text, which is admirably suited for the purposes of this book. The story of 
Audun is not only a beautiful one in itself, but, together with the preceding piece, 
gives a vivid idea of the Norse ideal of the kingly character, which was the founda- 
tion of their whole political system. As the Reader does not include poetry (except 
incidentally), I have added one of the finest of the Eddaic poems, which is at the 
same time freest from obscurity and corruption — the song of Thor's quest of his 

In the glossary I have ventured to deviate from the very inconvenient Scandi- 
navian arrangement, which puts p, ce, ce, right at the end of the alphabet. 

I have to acknowledge the great help I have had in preparing the texts and the 
glossary from Wimmer 's Oldnordisk Lcesebog, which I consider to be, on the whole, 
the best reading-book that exists in any language. So excellent is Wimmer's selec- 
tion of texts, that it was impossible for me to do otherwise than follow him in nearly 
every case. 

In conclusion, it is almost superfluous to say that this book makes no preten- 
sion to originality of any kind. If it contributes towards restoring to Englishmen 
that precious heritage — the old language and literature of Iceland — which our mis- 
erably narrow scheme of education has hitherto defrauded them of, it will have 
fulfilled its purpose. 


February, 1886 


I Grammar 1 

1 Pronunciation 3 

1.1 Vowels 3 

1.2 Consonants 3 

1.3 Stress 6 

2 Phonology 7 

2.1 Vowels 7 

2.1.1 Mutation 7 

2.1.2 Fracture 8 

2.1.3 Gradation 8 

2.1.4 Other changes 8 

2.2 Consonants 9 

3 Inflections 11 

3.1 Nouns 11 

3.1.1 Strong Masculines 12 

3.1.2 Strong Neuters 14 

3.1.3 Strong Feminines 15 

3.1.4 Weak Masculines 16 

3.1.5 Weak Neuters 17 

3.1.6 Weak Feminines 17 

3.2 Adjectives 18 

3.2.1 Strong Adjectives 18 

3.2.2 Weak Adjectives 19 

3.3 Comparison 21 

3.4 Numerals 21 

3.5 Pronouns 24 

vi An Icelandic Primer 

3.5.1 Personal 24 

3.5.2 Possessive 24 

3.5.3 Demonstrative 26 

3.5.4 Definite 26 

3.5.5 Relative 27 

3.5.6 Interrogative 28 

3.5.7 Indefinite 28 

3.6 Verbs 29 

3.6.1 Active 30 

3.6.2 Middle 30 

3.6.3 Strong Verbs 30 

3.6.4 Weak Verbs 36 

3.6.5 Strong-Weak Verbs 42 

3.6.6 Anomalous Verbs 42 

4 Composition 47 
4.1 Derivation 47 

4.1.1 Prefixes 47 

4.1.2 Endings 47 

5 Syntax 49 

5.1 Concord 49 

5.2 Cases 49 

5.3 Adjectives 50 

5.3.1 Pronouns 50 

5.3.2 Verbs 50 

II Texts 53 

6 Thor 55 

7 Thor and Ugaraaloki 57 

8 Balder 65 

9 The Death of Balder 67 

10 HeSinn and Hggni 71 


11 The Death of OlafTryggvason 73 

12 Au8un 83 

13 PrymskviSa 89 

14 Notes 95 

14.1 Thor 95 

14.2 Thor and Utgardaloki 95 

14.3 Balder 97 

14.4 The Death of Balder 97 

14.5 HeSinn and HQgni 97 

14.6 The Death of Olaf Tryggvason 97 

14.7 Audun 98 

14.8 I^rymskvida 98 

III Glossary 99 

IV Proper Names 171 



Chapter 1 


1. This book deals with Old Icelandic in its classical period, between 1200 and 

2. The Icelandic alphabet was founded on the Latin, with the addition of/? and 
d, and of the modified letters §, q, 0, which last is in this book written o, g. 

1.1 Vowels 

3. The vowel-letters had nearly the same values as in Old English. Long vow- 
els were often marked by ('). In this book long vowels are regularly marked by 
Cy. See Table 1.1 for the elementary vowels and diphthongs, with examples, and 
key-words from English, French (R), and German (G.). 

4. The unaccented / in systir, etc. (which is generally written e in the MSS.) 
probably had the sound of j mpity, which is really between / and e. The unacc. u 
in foru (they went), etc. (which is generally written o in the MSS.) probably had 
the sound of oo in good. 

Note that several of the vowels go in pairs of close and open, as shown in Ta- 
ble 1.2. 

1.2 Consonants 

5. Double consonants followed by a vowel must be pronounced really double, 
as in Italian. Thus the kk in drekka (to drink) must be pronounced like the kc in 

Note that the longs of §, o are written ce, ce, respectively. 

An Icelandic Primer 

a as in mann (G.) 

halda (hold) 



ra5 (advice) 


ete (F.) 

gekk (went) 


. . . 

let (let pret.) 


' men 

mgnn (men) 


' there 

saer (sea) 


fini (F.) 

mikill (great) 


. . . 

litill (little) 


' beau (F.) 

or6 (word) 


. . . 

tok (look) 



hgnd (hand) 


peu (F.) 

komr (comes) 


. . . 

foera (bring) 


peur (F.) 

gQra (make) 


sou (F.) 

upp (up) 


hus (house) 


' tu (F.) 

systir (sister) 


. . . 

lysa (shine) 


haus (G.) 

lauss (loose) 

ei : 

g + i 

bein (bone) 


? + y 

leysa (loosen) 

"Where no keyword is given for a long vowel, its 
sound is that of the corresponding short vowel length- 

Table 1.1 

close: e e o o o oe 
open: g ae q - q - 

Table 1.2 

1.2 Consonants 

bookcase, while the k in dr^ki (dragon) is single, as in booking. When final (or 
followed by another cons.) double conss. are pronounced long, as in munn (mouth 
ace), hamarr (hammer nom.), steinn (stone nom.), distinguished from mun (will 
vb.), and the accusatives hamar, stein. 

6. k and g had a more front (palatal) sound before the front vowels e, §, i, o, g, 
y, and their longs, as also before j, as in k^nna (known), keyra (drive), ggra (make), 
liggja (lie). 

7. kkj, ggj were probably pronounced simply as double front kk, gg, the j not 
being pronounced separately. 

8. f had initially the sound of our/, medially and finally that of v, as in gefa 
(give), gaf (gave), except of course in such combinations as ft, where it had the 
sound off. 

9. g was a stopped (back or front — guttural or palatal) cons, initially and in the 
combination ng, the two g's in ganga (go) being pronounced as in go. It had the 
open sound of G. g in sagen medially before the back vowels a, o, g, u, and all 
conss. except J, and finally: — saga (tale), dggum (with days); sagdi (he said); lag 
(he lay). Before the front vowels and j it had the sound of G. g in liegen, or nearly 
that of J (our y), as in s^gir (says), s^gja (to say). 

10. Before voiceless conss. (t, s) g seems to have been pronounced k, as in sagt 
(said), dags (day's). 

11. The g was always sounded in the combination ng, as in single, not as in 

12. h was sounded before j in such words as hjarta (heart) much as in E. hue {- 
hju). hi, hn, hr, hv probably represented voiceless /, n, r, w respectively, hv being 
identical with E. wh: hlaupa (leap), hniga (bend), hringr (ring), hvat (what). 

13. j is not distinguished from / in the MSS. It had the sound of E. y in young: 
jgrd (earth), s^tja (to set). 

14. p in pt probably had the sound of/: lopt (air). 

15. r was always a strong point trill, as in Scotch. 

16. s was always sharp. 

17. V (which was sometimes written u and w) had the sound of E. w: vel (well), 
hgggva (hew). 

18. z had the sound of ts: b§ztr (best). 

19. J) and 6 were used promiscuously in the older MSS., the very oldest using/? 
almost exclusively. In Modern Icelandic p is written initially to express the sound 
of E. hard th, d medially and finally to express that of soft th; as there can be no 
doubt that this usage corresponds with the old pronunciation, it is retained in this 

An Icelandic Primer 

book: ping (parliament), /a(5/r (father), vid (against). In such combinations as pd 
the d must of course be pronounced p. 

1.3 Stress 

20. The stress (accent) is always on the first syllable. 

Chapter 2 

2.1 Vowels 

21. The vowels are related to one another in different ways, the most important 
of which are mutation (umlaut), fracture (brechung), and gradation (ablaut). 

2.1.1 Mutation 

22. The following changes are i-mutations (caused by an older / or j following, 
which has generally been dropped)': 

a (q)...§ : — mann (man ace), m§nn (men); hgnd (hand), h§ndr (hands). : — mdl (speech), mcela (speak). 

e (ja, JQ)...i : — verdr (worth), virda (estimate). 

u (o)...y : — fullr {fuW), fylla (to fill); lopt (air), lypta (lift). 

u. ..y : — brun (eyebrow), pi. brynn. 

0...0 : — koma (to come), komr (comes). 

o...(E : — for (went), foera (bring). 

au. ..ey : — lauss (loose), leysa (loosen). 

ju (jo)...y : — sjukr (sick), syki (sickness); Ijosta (strike), lystr (strikes). 

23. The change of a into ^ is sometimes the result of a following k, g, or ng, 
as in d^gi dat. sg. of dagr (day), t^kinn (taken), g^nginn (gone), inf. taka, ganga. 
i appears instead of e, and u instead of o before a nasal followed by another cons.: 
cp. binda (to bind), bundinn (bound) with bresta (burst) ptc. prt. brostinn. 

'Many of the /'s which appear in derivative and inflectional syllables are late weakenings of a 
and other vowels, as in bani (death) = Old English bana; these do not cause mutation. 

An Icelandic Primer 

24. There is also a u-mutation, caused by a following u, which has often been 

a...Q : — dagr (day) dat. pi. dggum; land (land) pi. Ignd. 

25. Unaccented q becomes u, as in sumur pi. of sumar (summer), kglludu (they 
called), infin. kalla. 

2.1.2 Fracture 

26. The only vowel that is affected by fracture is e: when followed by original 
a it becomes ja, when followed by original u it becomes j^, as in jardar gen. of 
jgrd (earth)^. When followed by original /, the e is, of course, mutated to /, as in 
skildir plur. nom. of skjgldr (shield), gen. skjaldar. 

2.1.3 Gradation 

27. By gradation the vowels are related as follows: — 

a...o : — fara (go) pret./or, whence by mut.foera (bring). 

e (i, ja)...a...u (o) : — bresta (burst), prt. brast, prt. pi. brustu, ptc. prt. 
brostinn;finna (&nd),fundinn (found ptc), fundr (meeting). 

e...a...a...o : — stela (steal), prt. stal, prt. pi. stdlu, ptc. prt. stolinn. 

e...a...a...e : — gefa (give), gfl/(he gave), gdfu (they gave), gefinn (given), 
gJQfigifi), M-fracture of gef-, gcefa (luck) mut. of gdf-. 

T...ei...i : — skina (shine), skein (he shone), skinu (they shone), sol-skin 

ju (jo) : — Ijiiga (tell a lie), prt. laug, prt. pi. lugu, ptc. prt. 
loginn. lygi (lie sbst.) mut. of lug-, skjota (shoot), skjotr (swift), skotinn (shot 
ptc), skot (shot subst.). 

2.1.4 Other changes 

28. All final vowels are long in accented syllables: /?« (then), nU (now). 

29. Inflectional and derivative vowels are often dropt after long accented vow- 
els: cp. ganga (to go) with /a (to get), the dat. plurals knjdm (knees) with husum 

30. Vowels are often lengthened before / + cons.: hdlfr (half adj.), folk (peo- 
ple); cp.folginn (hidden) with brostinn (burst pZ^c). 

^Cp. German erde. 

2.2 Consonants 

2.2 Consonants 

31. V is dropped before o and u: vaxa (to grow), prt. ox, vinna (to win), unninn 
{won ptc), svelta (to starve), soltinn (starved, hungry). 

Final r is often assimilated to a preceding cons. 

32. *-lr, *-nr, *-sr always become -//, -nn, -ss after a long vowel or diphthong, 
as in stoll (chair nom.), ace. stol, steinn (stone nom.), ace. stein, vTss (wise masc. 
nom. sg.), VIS fem. nom. sg., and in unacc. syllables, as in the masc. sg. nominatives 
mikill (great), fem. mikil, borinn (carried), fem. borin, ymiss (various) fem. ymis. 

33. Words in which /, n, r, s are preceded by a cons, drop the r entirely, as in the 
masc. nominatives jar/ (earl), hrafn (raven), vitr (wise), purs (giant), lax (salmon). 

34. If / and n are preceded by a short accented vowel, the r is generally kept, 
as in stelr (steals), vinr, (friend), sr becoming ss, as elsewhere. 

35. r is kept after //, and generally after nn, as in the masc. nom. allr (all), and 
in br^nnr (burns). 

36. z often stands for ds as well as ts, as in per pykkizk (ye seem) = *pykkid-sk, 
Vest-firzkr (belonging to the West Firths) = - *firdskr (fgrdr, firth). 

37. Inflectional t is generally doubled after a long accented vowel: far (few) 
neut.fdtt (cp. allr 'all,' neut. allt), sd (I saw), sdtt 'thou sawest.' 

Chapter 3 


3.1 Nouns 

38. Gender. There are three genders in Icelandic — masculine, feminine, and 
neuter. The gender is partly natural, partly grammatical, generally agreeing with 
the gender in Old English. Compound words follow the gender of their last ele- 

39. Strong and Weak. All weak nouns end in a vowel in the nom. sg. and in 
most of the other cases as well. Most strong nouns end in a cons, in the nom. sg. 

40. Cases. There are four cases — nominative, accusative, dative, genitive. All 
nouns (except a few contractions) have the gen. pi. in -a (fiska, of fishes), and the 
dat. pi. in -um ifiskum). All strong masculines (fiskr) and some strong feminines 
{brudr, bride) take r' in the nom. sg. Most strong feminines show the bare root in 
the nom. sg. with w-mutation, if possible {dst, favour, /(pr, journey). The nom. pi. of 
all strong masc. and fem. nouns ends in r (fiskar, astir). The ace. pi. of fem. nouns 
is the same as the nom. pi. (astir). The ace. pi. of masc. strong nouns always ends 
in a vowel (fiska). The plur. nom. and ace. of neuters is the same as the sing. nom. 
and ace, except that in the plur. nom. and ace. they take w-mutation, if possible 
(hUs, houses, Ignd, lands). 

41. The declensions are most conveniently distinguished by the ace. plur. 

Subject, of course, to the assimilations described above. 


12 An Icelandic Primer 

3.1.1 Strong Masculines 

(1) a-plurals 

Singular Plural 

Nom. fisk-r (fish) fisk-ar 

Ace. fisk fisk-a 

Dat. fisk-i fisk-um 

Gen. fisk-s fisk-a 

Table 3.1 

42. See Table 3.1. So also heimr (home, world); konungr (king); Porr (Thor), 
ace. Por, gen. Pors; steinn (stone), ace. stein, gen. steins, pi. nom. steinar; hrafn 
(raven), ace. hrafn, pi. nom. hrafnar; purs (giant), ace. gen. purs, pi. nom. pursar. 

43. Dissyllables in -r, -/, -n generally throw out the preceding vowel before 
a vowel-inflection: /jomarr (hammer), dat. hamri; jgtunn (giant), pi. nom. jgtnar. 
k^till (kettle) and lykill (key) show unmutated vowels in the contracted forms, as 
in the ace. plur. katla, lukla. 

44. Some nouns of this decl. take -ar in the gen. sing., especially proper names, 
such as Hdkon, gen. Hdkonar. 

45. Some nouns add v before vowels: scEr (sea), gen. scevar. 

46. The dat. sometimes drops the /: see (sea), Por. dagr (day) mutates its vowel 
in the dat. d^gi. 

47. Nouns in -ir keep the / in the sing., and drop it in the plur., as shown in 
Table 3.2. 




hgUi-r (cave) 










Table 3.2 


48. So also a number of proper names, such as Skrymir, Porir. 

(2) /-plurals 

49. See Table 3.3. So also gripr (precious thing), salr (hall). 

3.1 Nouns 13 




sta5-r (plaee) 










Table 3.3 


50. g^str (guest) takes -/ in the dat. sg., and -s in the gen. sg. 

51. Those ending in g or ^ (together with some others) insert j before a and u: 
b§kkr (bench), b^kk, b^kk, b^kkjar; b^kkir, b^kki, b^kkjum, b^kkja. So also m^rgr 
(marrow), str^ngr (string). 

(3) M -plurals 




skJQld-r {shield) 










Table 3.4 


52. See Table 3.4. So also vgndr (twig), vgllr (plain), vidr (wood), ass (god) 
has plur. nom. cesir, ace. dsu. sonr (son) has dat. sg. syni, plur. nom. synir. It reg- 
ularly drops its r of the nom. in such compounds as Tryggva-son (son of Tryggvi). 

(4) r-plurals 

Singular Plural 

Nom. fot-r (foot) foet-r 

Ace. fot foet-r 

Dat. foet-i fot-um 

Gen. fot-ar fot-a 

Table 3.5 

54. See Table 3.5. So also brodir (brother), pi. broedr. 


An Icelandic Primer 

55. Pres. participles used as nouns follow this decl. in the pi., following the 
weak class in the sg., as shown in Table 3.6. 

Singular Plural 

Nom. bondi (yeoman) boendr 

Ace. bonda boendr 

Dat. bonda bondum 

Gen. bonda bonda 

Table 3.6 

56. So also froendi (kinsman), Tp\. froendr. 

3.1.2 Strong Neuters 




skip (ship) 









Table 3.7 


57. See Table 3.7. So also ord (word), land (land) pi. Ignd, sumar (summer) 
pi. sumur {% 25). 

58. m§n (necklace), kyn (race), grey (dog) insert y before a and u: greyjum. 
hggg (stroke) inserts v before a vowel: hgggvi. kne (knee), kne, kne, knes; kne, 
kne, kjdm, knjd. So also tre (tree). 

59. fe (money) is contracted: gen.jjdr, dat.fe. 




kvseSi (poem) 










Table 3.8 


60. See Table 3.8. So also klcEdi (cloth). Those in k insert 7 before a and u: 
m^rki (mark), m^rkjum, m^rkja. So also riki (sovereignty). 

3.1 Nouns 


3.1.3 Strong Feminines 

(1) ar-plurals 




gJQf {gift) 









Table 3.9 


also mgn (mane), gjgrd (gird 

62. a (river) contracts: a, a, a, dr\ dr, dr, dm, d. 

63. Many take -u in the dat. sg.: hurling (old woman), k^rling, k^rlingu, k^rlingar; 
k^rlingar, k^rlingar, k^rlingum, k^rlinga. So also laug (bath). 

64. Those with a mutated root-vowel (or /) insert j in inflection: ey (island), ey, 
eyju, eyjar; eyjar, eyjar, eyjum, eyja. So also Frigg, H§1. mcer (maid), mey, meyju, 
meyjar; meyjar, meyjar, meyjum, meyja. 

65. See Table 3.10. 




hei5-r {heath) 










Table 3.10 


(2) ir-plurals 

66. See Table 3.11. So also sorg (sorrow), skipun (arrangement), hgfn (har- 
bour) pi. hafnir, and the majority of strong feminines. 

67. Many have -u in the dat. sg.: sol (sun), sol, solu, solar; solir, solir, solum, 
sola. So also jgrd (earth), stund (period of time). 

68. One noun has r in the nom. sg., following heidr in the sg.: brudr (bride), 
brudi, brudi, brudar; brudir, brudir, brudum, bruda. 


An Icelandic Primer 













Table 3.11 


(3) r-plurals 

Singular Plural 

Nom. bok (book) boek-r 

Ace. bok boek-r 

Dat. bok bok-um 

Gen. bok-ar bok-a 

Table 3.12 

69. See Table 3.12. So also ndtt (night) pi. ncetr, hot (compensation) pi. boetr, 
tgnn (tooth) gen. tannar pi. t^nnr. 

70. hgnd (hand) pi. h§ndr has dat. sg. h^ndi. 

71. kyr (cow) has ace. ku, pi. kyr. 

72. brun (eyebrow) assimilates the r of the pi.: brynn. 

Singular Plural 

Nom. moSir {mother) moe3r 

Ace. moSur moe3r 

Dat. moSur moeSrum 

Gen. moSur moeSra 

Table 3.13 


See Table 3.13. So also dottir (daughter) pi. doetr; systir (sister) pi. systr. 

3.1.4 Weak Masculines 

74. See Table 3.14. So also mdni (moon), felagi (companion). 

75. hgfdingi (chief) and some others inserty in inflection: hgfdingja, hgfdingjar, 

3.1 Nouns 


Singular Plural 

Nom. bog-i {bow) bog-ar 

Ace. bog-a bog-a 

Dat. bog-a bog-um 

Gen. bog-a bog-a 

Table 3.14 

76. le (scythe) is contracted; its gen. sg. is Ijd. 

11. oxi (ox) has pi. oxn. 

78. herra (lord) is indeclinable in the sg. 

3.1.5 Weak Neuters 




hjart-a (heart) 










Table 3.15 


79. See Table 3.15. So also auga (eye). 

3.1.6 Weak Feminines 




tung-a (tongue) 










Table 3.16 


80. See Table 3.16. So also stjarna (star) pi. stjgrnur, kirkja (church), gen. 
plurals stjarna, kirkna. 

81. See Table 3.17. So also gl^di (joy) and many abstract nouns. 

82. lygi (falsehood) has pi. lygar; so also ggrsimi (precious thing). 

18 An Icelandic Primer 



gUi (old 








Table 3.17 

3.2 Adjectives 

83. Adjectives have three genders, and the same cases as nouns, though with 
partly different endings, together with strong and weak forms. 

3.2.1 Strong Adjectives 

Masc. Neut. Fem. 

Sg. Nom. ung-r {young) ung-t ung 

Ace. ung-an ung-t ung-a 

Dat. ung-um ung-u ung-ri 

Gen. ung-s ung-s ung-rar 

PI. Nom. ung-ir ung ung-ar 

Ace. ung-a ung ung-ar 

Dat. ung-um ung-um ung-um 

Gen. ung-ra ung-ra ung-ra 

Table 3.18 

84. See Table 3.18. So also fagr (fair), iQvn.fggr, neut. fagrt. 

85. Some insert j before a and u: nyr (new), nyjum, nyjan. 

86. Some insert v before a vowel: hdr (high), hdvan, dokkr (dark), dokkvir, 
kykr (alive), kykvir. 

87. The t of the neut. is doubled after a long vowel: nytt, hdtt. Monosyllables 
in d, dd, tt form their neut. in -tt: breidr (broad), breitt; leiddr (led), leitt. godr 
(good) has neut. gott. sannr (true) has neut. satt. In unaccented syllables or if a 
cons, precedes, tt is shortened to t: kalladr (called), kallat; blindr (blind), blint, 
hardr (hard), hart,fastr (firm),/fl5^ 

88. / and n assimilate a following r. gamall (old), fem. ggmul, fem. ace. gamla, 
dat. gamalli. vcenn (beautiful), gen. pi. vcenna. 

3.2 Adjectives 


Masc. Neut. Fem. 

Sg. Nom. mikill (great) mikit mikil 

Ace. mikinn mikit mikla 

Dat. miklum miklu mikilli 

Gen. mikils mikils mikillar 

PI. Nom. miklir 

Ace. mikla 

Dat. miklum 

Gen. mikilla 

mikil miklar 

mikil miklar 

miklum miklum 

mikilla mikilla 

Table 3.19 

89. See Table 3.19. So also litill (little). 

90. Dissyllables in -inn have -it in the neut., and -inn in the masc. sg. ace. 
tiginn (distinguished), tigit, tiginn, pi. tignir. So also kominn (come). 

91. See Table 3.20. 




Sg. Nom. 

annarr (other) 















PI. Nom. 
















Table 3.20 

3.2.2 Weak Adjectives 

92. See Table 3.21. So also fagri, hdvi, mikli, etc. 

93. See Table 3.22. So also all comparatives, such as meiri (greater), and pres. 
partic. when used as adjectives, such as gefandi (giving), dat. pi. gefgndum. 


An Icelandic Primer 

Masc. Neut. Fem. 

Sg. Nom. ung-i ung-a ung-a 

Ace. ung-a ung-a ung-u 

Dat. ung-a ung-a ung-u 

Gen. ung-a ung-a ung-u 

PL Nom. ung-u ung-u ung-u 

Ace. ung-u ung-u ung-u 

Dat. ung-u ung-u ung-u 

Gen. ung-u ung-u ung-u 

Table 3.21 




Sg. Nom. 

yngri (younger) 















PI. Nom. 














Table 3.22 



3.3 Comparison 


3.3 Comparison 

94. (1) with -ari, -astr. n^r (powerful), rikari, rikastr; g(?/Mgr (distinguished), 
ggfgari, ggfgastr. 

95. (2) with -ri, -str and mutation: langr (long), Iqngri, l^ngstr; storr (big), 
stoerri, stoerstr; ungr (young), yngri, yngstr. 

96. The adjectives in Table 3.23 are irregular. 

gamall {old) gUri glztr 

go5r {good) bgtri bgztr 

illr {bad) vgrri vgrstr 

iTtill {little) minni minstr 

margr {many) fleiri flestr 

mikill {great) meiri mestr 

Table 3.23 

3.4 Numerals 

97. See Table 3.24 and Table 3.25. 




einn {one) 

fyrstr {first) 





































Table 3.24 

22 An Icelandic Primer 

















einn ok tuttugu, etc 


J)nr tigir, etc. 


tlu tigir 


ellifu tigir 





Table 3.25 

98. einn is declined like other adjectives. See Table 3.26. 




















Table 3.26 

It also has a pi. einir, einar, ein; gen. einna, etc. in the sense of 'some.' 

99. The next three show various irregularities. See Table 3.27. 

100. Similarly bddir (both). See Table 3.28. 

101. See Table 3.29. 

102. See Table 3.30. 

103. The others are indeclinable up to prir tigir, etc.; the tigir being declined 
regularly as a plural strong w-masculine tigir, tigu, tigum, tiga. 

104. hundrad is a strong neut.: tvau hundrud (240), tveim hundrudum, etc. It 
governs the gen. (as also does pusund): fimm hundrud golfa, 'five (six) hundred 

105. pusund is a strong /r- feminine: tvcer pusundir (2400). 

106. hundrad and pusund are rarely = 100 and 1000. 

3.4 Numerals 





















Table 3.27 


Nom. badir 
Aee. bada 
Dat. badum 
Gen. bgggja 

Neut. Fem. 

baedi badar 

baedi badar 

baSum badum 

bgggja bgggja 

Table 3.28 




















Table 3.29 
















Gen. fjogurra fjogurra fjogurra 
Table 3.30 


An Icelandic Primer 

107. Of the ordinals /yr^Z^r and annarr (§91) are strong, the others weak ad- 
jectives, pridi inserts a j: pridja, etc. 

3.5 Pronouns 

3.5.1 Personal 

108. See Table 3.31 and Table 3.32. 

Sg. Norn. 


|)u {thou) 





sik {oneself) 









Dual Nom. 















PI. Nom. 

ver {we) 

Iser {ye) 





sik {oneselves) 









Table 3.31 

109. ek was often suffixed to its verb, especially in poetry, being sometimes 
added twice over: mcetta-k (I might), sd-k-a-k (I saw not; a='not'). So also pU: 
er-tu (art thou), skalt-u (shalt thou) = *skalt-tu. 

3.5.2 Possessive 

110. See Table 3.33. So also pinn (thy), sinn (his, etc., reflexive). 

111. vdrr, vdrt, vdr (our) is regular: ace. masc. vdm, masc. plur. vdrir, vdra, 
vdrum, vdrra, etc. 

112. See Table 3.34. So also okkarr (our two) and ykkarr (your two). 

113. hans (his), pess (its), h^nnar (her), and peira (their) are indeclinable. 

3.5 Pronouns 



Sg. Nom. hann (he) 
Ace. hann 
Dat. honum 
Gen. bans 

Neut. Fem. 

Jjat (it) hon (she) 

Jjat hana 

J)vT hgnni 

|)ess hgnnar 

PI. Nom. |)eir (they) J)au Jjaer 

Ace. J)a |)au J)aer 

Do?. }3eim |)eim |)eim 

Gen. }3eira J)eira J)eira 

Table 3.32 




Sg. Nom. 

minn (my) 















PL Nom. 
















Table 3.33 




Sg. Nom. 

ydarr (your) 















PL Nom. 
















Table 3.34 


An Icelandic Primer 

3.5.3 Demonstrative 

114. See Table 3.35. 




Sg. Nom. 

sa (that) 















PI. Nom. 
















Table 3.35 

115. hinn, hitt, hin (that) is inflected like minn (except that its vowel is short 
throughout): ace. masc. hinn, plur. masc. hinir, hina, hinum, hinna. 

116. See Table 3.36. 

Masc. Neut. Fem. 

Sg. Nom. J)essi (this) J)etta J)essi 

Ace. J)enna |)etta Jjessa 

DflZ^. J)essum |)essu J)essi 

Gen. Jjessa J)essa |)essar 

PI. Nom. J)essir |)essi J)essar 

Ace. ]3essa J)essi J)essar 

Dot J)essum Jjessum |)essum 

Gen. Jjessa J)essa J)essa 

Table 3.36 

3.5.4 Definite 

117. The prefixed definite article is declined as shown in Table 3.37. 

118. When suffixed to its noun it undergoes various changes. In its monosyl- 
labic forms it drops its vowel after a short (un-accented) vowel, as in auga-t (the 

3.5 Pronouns 





Sg. Nom. 
















PI. Nom. 
















Table 3.37 

eye), but keeps it after a long vowel, as in d-in (the river), tre-it (the tree). The dis- 
syllabic forms drop their initial vowel almost everywhere; not, however, after the 
-ar, -r, of the gen. sg., nor in mqnninir (men, nom.), m^nn-ina (men, ace.). The -m 
of the dat. pi. is dropped before the suffixed -num. See Table 3.38 and Table 3.39. 




Sg. Nom. 
















PL Nom. 
















Table 3.38 

3.5.5 Relative 

119. The ordinary relative pron. is the indeclinable er, often preceded by sa: 
sd er - he who, who, su er who fem. 


An Icelandic Primer 

Masc. Neut. Fem. 

Sg. Nom. bogi-nn auga-t tunga-n 

Ace. boga-nn auga-t tungu-na 

Dat. boga-num auga-nu tungu-nni 

Gen. boga-ns auga-ns tungu-nnar 

PL Nom. bogar-nir augu-n tungur-nar 

Ace. boga-na augu-n tungur-nar 

Dat. bogu-num augu-num tungnu-num 

Gen. boga-nna augna-nna tungna-nna 

Table 3.39 

3.5.6 Interrogative 

120. The neut. hvat has gen. hvess, dat. hvT, which last is chiefly used as an 
adverb = 'why.' 

121. See Table 3.40. 

Masc. Neut. Fem. 

Sg. Nom. \\y an {which of two) hvart hvar 

Ace. hvarn hvart hvara 

Dat. hvarum hvaru hvarri 

Gen. hvars hvars hvarrar 

PL Nom. hvarir 

Ace. hvara 

Dat. hvarum 

Gen. hvarra 

hvar hvarar 

hvar hvarar 

hvarum hvarum 

hvarra hvarra 

122. See Table 3.41. 

Table 3.40 

3.5.7 Indefinite 

123. einn-hv^rr, eitthv^rt, einhv^r (some one) keeps an invariable ein- in the 
other cases, the second element being inflected as above. 

124. sumr (some) is declined like an ordinary adjective. 

3.6 Verbs 


Masc. Neut. Fem. 

Sg. Nom. hvgrr (which, who) hvgrt hvgr 

Ace. hvgrn hvgrt hvgrja 

Dat. hvgrjum hvgrju hvgrri 

Gen. hvgrs hvgrs hvgrrar 

PI. Nom. hvgrir 

Aee. hvgrja 

Dat. hvgrjum 

Gen. hvgrra 

hvgr hvgrjar 

hvgr hvgrjar 

hvgrjum hvgrjum 

hvgrra hvgrra 

Table 3.41 


See Table 3.42. 




Sg. Nom. 

nakkvarr (some) 















PL Nom. 
















Table 3.42 

126. See Table 3.43. 

127. In hvdr-tv^ggja (each of the two, both) the first element is declined as 
above, the second is left unchanged. 

3.6 Verbs 

128. There are two classes of verbs, strong and weak. Strong verbs are conju- 
gated partly by means of gradation, weak verbs by adding d (d, t). 

129. The d of the 2 pi. is dropt before pit (ye two) and per (ye): gefi per, gdfu 

30 An Icelandic Primer 

Masc. Neut. Fem. 

Sg. Nom. engi {none, no) ekki engi 

Ace. engan ekki enga 

Dat. engum engu engri 

Gen. engis engis engrar 

PL Nom. engir engi engar 

Ace. enga engi engar 

Dat. engum engum engum 

Gen. engra engra engra 

Table 3.43 

130. There is a middle voice, which ends in -mk in the 1 pers. sg. and pi., the 
rest of the verb being formed by adding sk to the active endings, r being dropt, the 
resulting ts, ds being written z (§ 36): kvezk (active kvedr 'says'), pufekkzk (fekkt 

131. The following is the conjugation of the strong verb gefa (give), which will 
show those endings which are common to all verbs: 

3.6.1 Active 

See Table 3.44. 

3.6.2 Middle 

See Table 3.45. 

3.6.3 Strong Verbs 

132. In the strong verbs the plur. of the pret. indie, generally has a different 
vowel from that of the sing. The 1 sg. pret. of the middle voice always has the 
vowel of the pi. pret.: gdfumk. The pret. subj. has the vowel of the pret. indie, 
plur. mutated: skaut (he shot), skutu (they shot), skyti (he might shoot). But there 
is no mutation in verbs of the first conj.: hljopi, inf. hlaupa (leap). 

133. The pres. indie, sing, mutates the root- vowel in all three persons: ek skyt, 
pU skytr, hann skytr, infin. skjota (shoot), e however is not mutated: ek gef, pu 

3.6 Verbs 31 

Indicative Subjunctive 

Present sg. 1. gef gef-a 

2. gef-r gef-ir 

3. gef-r gef-i 

pi. 1. gef-um gef-im 

2. gef-i6 gef-i3 

3. gef-a gef-i 

Preterite sg. 1 . gaf gaef-a 

2. gaf-t gaef-ir 

3. gaf gaef-i 

pi. 1. gaf-um gaef-im 

2. gaf-u5 gaef-i5 

3. gaf-u gsef-i 

Imperative sg. 2 gef; pi. 1 gef-um, 2 gef-i6. 

Participle pres. gef-andi; pret. gef-inn. 
Infin. gefa. 

Table 3.44 

32 An Icelandic Primer 

Present sg. 




















^reterite sg. 


















Impers. sg. 2 gef-sk; pi. 1 gef-umk, 2 gef-izk. 
Partic. pres. gef-andisk; pret. gef-izk neut. 
Infin. gef-ask. 

Table 3.45 

3.6 Verbs 


tr. The inflectional r is liable to the same modifications as the r of nouns (§ 32): 
skinn, v^x, infin. skina (shine), vaxa (grow). 

134. Verbs in Id change the d into t in the 1, 3 sg. pret. indie, and in the imper. 
sg.: helt (held), halt (hold!), infin. halda. nd becomes tt, and ng becomes kk under 
the same conditions: binda (bind), ganga (go), pret. batt, gekk, imper. bitt, gakk. 

135. The t of the 2 sg. pret. indie, is doubled after a long accented vowel: pu 
sdtt (thou sawest). If the 1 sg. pret. indie, ends in t or d, the 2 sg. ends in zt: let (I 
let), pu lezt, baud (I off'ered) pu bauzt. 

136. There are seven conjugations of strong verbs, distinguished mainly by the 
characteristic vowels of their preterites. 

I. 'Fall '-conjugation 

137. See Table 3.46. 


Third Pres. Prt. Sing. 

Prt. PI. 

Ptc. Prt. 

falla (fall) 





lata (let) 





rada (advise) 





heita (call) 





halda (hold) 





ganga (go) 





fa (get) 





auka (increase) 





bua (dwell) 





hQggva (hew) 





hlaupa (leap) 





Table 3.46 

138. The verbs in Table 3.47 have weak preterites in r. 

Infin. Third Pres. Prt. Sing. Prt. PI. Ptc. Prt. 

groa (grow) groer grori groru groinn 

roa (row) roer rori roru roinn 

snua (twist) snyr snori snoru snuinn 

Table 3.47 


An Icelandic Primer 

139. heita in the passive sense of 'to be named, called' has a weak present: ek 
heiti, pU heitir. 

II. 'Shake'-conjugation 

140. See Table 3.48. 


Third Pres. 

Prt. Sing. 

Prt. PI. 

Ptc. Prt, 

fara (go) 





grafa (dig) 





hlaSa (load) 





vaxa (grow) 





standa (stand) 





aka (drive) 





taka (take) 





draga (draw) 





fla (flay) 





sla (strike) 





Table 3.48 

141. The verbs in Table 3.49 have weak presents. 


Third Pres. Prt. Sing. 

Prt. PI. 

Ptc. Prt. 

h?ga (lift) 





deyja (die) 





hlaeja (laugh) 



Table 3.49 



III. 'Bind'-conjugation 

142. See Table 3.50. 

143. The verbs in Table 3.51 have weak presents (which makes however no 
diff'erence in their conjugation). 

IV. 'Bear'-conjugation 
144. See Table 3.52. 

3.6 Verbs 



Third Pres. Prt. Sing. 

Prt. PI. 

Ptc. Prt. 

bresta (burst) 





hverfa (turn) 





svelga (swallow) 





verSa (become) 





skjalfa (shake) 





drekka (drink) 





finna (find) 





vinna (win) 





binda (bind) 





springa (spring) 





stinga (pierce) 





bregSa (pull) 





sokkva (sink) 





stokkva (spring) 





Table 3.50 


Third Pres. Prt. Sing. Prt. PI. Ptc. Prt. 

brgnna (burn) brgnnr 
rgnna (run) rgnnr 







Table 3.51 


Third Pres. 

Prt. Sing. 

Prt. PI. 

Ptc. Prl 

bera (carry) 





nema (take) 





fela (hide) 





koma (come) 





sofa (sleep) 





Table 3.52 


An Icelandic Primer 

V. 'Give'-conjugation 

145. See Table 3.53. 


Third Pres. 

Prt. Sing. 

Prt. PI. 

Ptc. Prt. 

drepa (kill) 





gefa (give) 





kveSa (say) 





meta (estimate) 





reka (drive) 





eta (eat) 





sja (see) 





Table 3.53 

146. The verbs in Table 3.54 have weak presents. 


Third Pres. 



Prt. PI. 

Ptc. Prt, 

bidja (ash) 





sitja (sit) 





liggja (lie) 





J)iggja (receive) 





Table 3.54 

VI. 'Shine'-conjugation 

147. See Table 3.55. 

148. VTkja (see Table 3.56) has a weak present. 

VII. 'Choose'-conjugation 

149. See Table 3.57. 

3.6.4 Weak Verbs 

150. There are three conjugations of weak verbs. All those of the first conju- 
gation have mutated vowels in the pres., and form their pret. with d (d, t): heyra 

3.6 Verbs 



Third Pres. 

Prt. Sing. 

Prt. PI. 

Ptc. Prt. 

bita (bite) 





drifa (drive) 





gripa (grasp) 





lT5a (go) 





iTta (look) 





riSa (ride) 





sTga (sink) 





slTta (rear) 





stiga (advance) 





bT6a (vvfl/O 





Table 3.55 


Third Pres. 

Prt. Sing. 

Prt. PI. 

Ptc. Prt. 

vTkja (move) 





Table 3.56 


Third Pres. 

Prt. Sing. 

Prt. PI. 

Ptc. Prt, 

bjo8a (offer) 





brjota (break) 





fljota (float) 





hljota (receive) 





kjosa (choose) 





njota (enjoy) 





skjota (shoot) 





drjupa (drop) 





Ijuga (tell lies) 





luka (close) 





luta (bend) 





fljuga (fly) 





Table 3.57 

38 An Icelandic Primer 

(hear), heyrda. Those of the second form their pret. in the same way, but have un- 
mutated vowels in the pres.: hafa (have) hafda. Those of the third form their pret. 
in -ada: kalla (call), kallada. 

I. 'Hear'-conjugation 

151. See Table 3.58 (active) and Table 3.59 (middle). 

Indicative Subjunctive 

Present sg. 1. heyr-i heyr-a 

2. heyr-ir heyr-ir 

3. heyr-ir heyr-i 

pi. 1. heyr-um heyr-im 

2. heyr-id heyr-iS 

3. heyr-a heyr-i 

Preterite sg. 1 . heyr-5a heyr-5a 

2. heyr-6ir heyr-3ir 

3. heyr-3i heyr-5i 

pi. 1. heyr-3um heyr-3im 

2. heyr-5u5 heyr-5i5 

3. heyr-6u heyr-5i 

Imper. sg. 1. heyr; pi. 1. heyr-um, 2. heyr-i8. 
Partic. pres. heyr-andi; pret. heyr-6r. 
Infin. heyr-a. 

Table 3.58 

A. Without vowel-change 

152. The inflectional d becomes d after long syllables ending in / or «: sigla 
(sail), siglda; n^fna (name), n^fnda, n^fndr. 

153. -dd becomes dd: leida (lead), leidda. 

154. d after s and t becomes t: reisa (raise), reista; mosta (meet), moetta. Also 
in a few verbs in /, n: mcela (speak), mcelta; sp§nna (buckle), sp^nta. 

3.6 Verbs 


Present sg. 1. 






pi. 1. heyr-umk 

2. heyr-izk 

3. heyr-ask 








Preterite sg. 1 . 





pi. 1. heyr-5umk 

2. heyr-5uzk 

3. heyr-5usk 







Imper sg. 2. heyr-sk; pi. 1. heyr-umk, 2. heyr-izk. 
Partic. pres. heyr-andisk; pret. heyr-zk neut. 
Infin. heyr-ask. 

Table 3.59 

40 An Icelandic Primer 

155. After nd and pt it is dropped: s^nda (send), s§nda, s^ndr; lypta (lift), 

156. It is preserved in such verbs as the following: doema (judge), d(jemda;f(jera 
(lead), fosrda; h^rda (harden), h^rda; hleypa (gallop), hleypda. 

B. With vowel-change 

157. All these verbs havej preceded by a short syllable (tglja), or a long vowel 
without any cons, after it (dyja), or gg (Igggja); the j being kept before a and u, as 
in the pres. ind. of spyrja (ask): spyr, spyrr, spyrr; spyrjum, spyrid, spyrja, pres. 
subj. 1 sg. ek spyrja; they unmutate their vowel in the pret. and ptc. pret. (spurSa, 
spurdr), the mutation being restored in the pret. subj. spyrda, spyrdir, etc. The ptc. 
pret. often has an / before the d. See Table 3.60. 

bgrja {strike) 



Igggja {lay) 



tglja {tell) 



vgkja {wake) 



flytja {remove) 



dyja {shake) 



Table 3.60 

158. The verbs in Table 3.61 keep the mutated vowel throughout. 

sglja {sell) sglda sgldr 
sgtja {set) sgtta sgttr 

Table 3.61 


159. The verbs in Table 3.62 are irregular. 

160. The verb in Table 3.63 has an adj. for its partic. pret. 

3.6 Verbs 


soekja {seek) sotta sottr 
J)ykkja {seem) ]30tta J)ottr 

Subj. pret. scetta, poetta. 

Table 3.62 

gpra {make) gQrda gQrr. 
Table 3.63 

Ufa {live) 




una {be contented) 




skorta {be wan 





J)ola {endure) 




J)ora (Jore) 




na {attain) 



nadr, nait 

Table 3.64 

sggja {say) 
J)ggja (Z^e silent) 
hafa {have) 
kaupa (^Mj) 



Table 3.65 



42 An Icelandic Primer 

II. 'Have '-conjugation 

161. The few verbs of this class are conjugated like those of conj. I, except that 
some of them have imperatives in -/: vaki, p§fi; uni. Ufa, s^gja have imper. lif, s^g. 
They mutate the vowel of the pret. subj. (ynda). Their partic. pret. generally occurs 
only in the neut.; sometimes the a is dropped. See Table 3.64. 

162. The verbs in Table 3.65 show mutation. 

163. The present indie, of the first three is shown in Table 3.66. 

Sing. 1. 





PluK 1. 











Table 3.66 

164. The rest of hafa is regular. Pres. subj. hafa, hafir, hafi; hafim, hafid, hafi. 
Pret. indie, hafda, hafdir, hafdi; hgfdum, hgfdud, hgfdu. Pret. subj. h§fda, h^fdir, 
h^fdi; h^fdim, h^fdid, h^fdi. Imper. haf hgfum, hafid. Ptc. hafandi, hafdr. 

III. 'Call' -conjugation 

See Table 3.67 (active) and Table 3.68 (middle). 

165. So also byrja (begin), h^rja (make war), vakna (awake). 

3.6.5 Strong- Weak Verbs 

166. The verbs in Table 3.69 have old strong preterites for their presents, from 
which new weak preterites are formed. 

167. Of these verbs munu and skulu have preterite infinitives: mundu, skyldu. 

3.6.6 Anomalous Verbs 

168. Vilja (will) in the present is shown in Table 3.70. 

169. Vera (be) is shown in Table 3.71. 

3.6 Verbs 


Present sg. 1 


pi. 1 


Preterite sg. 1 


pi. 1 


Indicative Subjunctive 

1-"" " kall-a 



kall-ar kall-i 









kQll-u3um kall-a5im 
kQll-u3u5 kall-aSiS 
kQll-u6u kall-a6i 

Imper. sing. 2. kall-a; plur 1. kQll-um, 2. kall-i6. 
Partic. pres. kall-andi; pret. kalladr {neut. kallat). 
Infin. kalla. 

Table 3.67 


An Icelandic Primer 

Present sg. 1 


pi. 1 


Preterite sg. 1 


/?/. 1 
















kQll-u5umk kQll-u5umk 

kall-aSisk kall-aSisk 

kall-adisk kall-a8isk 

kQll-u8umk kall-a8imk 

k^U-uduzk kall-a8izk 

kQll-u8usk kall-a3isk 

Imper sing. 2. kail-ask; pi. 1. kQll-umk, 2. kall-izk. 
Partic. pres. kall-andisk; pret. kall-azk neut. 
Infin. kail-ask. 

Table 3.68 


Third Pres. 

Prt. Sing. 

Prt. PI. 

Ptc. Prt. 

eiga (possess) 





kunna (can) 




kunnat n 

mega (can) 




matt n. 

muna (remember) 




munat n. 

munu (will) 





skulu (shall) 





Jjurfa (need) 




Jjurft n. 

unna (love) 




unnt n. 

vita (know) 





Table 3.69 

3.6 Verbs 


Sing. Plur. 

1. vil viljum 

2. vill viliS 

3. vill vilja 

Subj. pres. vili. Pret. ind. vilda. Ptc. prt. viljat. 
Table 3.70 

Indicative Subjunctive 

Present sg. 1. em se 

2. ert ser 

3. er se 











Preterite sg. 




















Imper sg. ver; pi. veri5. Ptc. prt. verit n. 
Table 3.71 

Chapter 4 

170. Composition with the genitive is very frequent in Icelandic. Thus by the 
side of skip-stjom (ship-steering) we find skips-brot (ship's breaking, shipwreck), 
skipa-h^rr (army of ships, fleet). Genitival composition often expresses posses- 
sion, as in konungs-skip (king's ship). 

4.1 Derivation 

4.1.1 Prefixes 

171. Prefixes are much less used in Icelandic than in Old English. 
al- 'quite,' 'very': al-buinn 'quite ready,' oZ-^noZ^r 'very clever.' 

all- 'all,' 'very': all-valdr 'all-ruler, monarch,' all-hardr 'very hard,' all- 
storum 'very greatly.' 

and- 'against': and-lit 'countenance' {lita, look), and-svar 'answer.' 

QqI- 'many': j]Ql-m§nni 'multitude' (madr, man). 

mis- 'mis-': mis-lTka 'displease.' 

u- 'un-': u-fridr 'war' ifridr, peace), u-happ 'misfortune' (happ luck). 

4.1.2 Endings 

(a) Nouns 


172. -ingr, -ingi, -ing: vTkingr 'pirate,' hgfdingi 'chief,' k^rling 'old woman.' 


48 An Icelandic Primer 


173. -6, fern, with mutation: f^grd 'beauty' (fagr, fair), f^rd 'journey' (fara, 
go), l^ngd 'length' {langr, long). 

-ing, fern.: svipting 'pulling,' viking 'piracy,' virding 'honour.' 
-leikr, masc: koer-leikr 'affection' {hoerr, dear), skjot-leikr 'speed' {skjotr, 

-an, -un, fern.: skipan 'arrangement,' sk^mtun 'amusement.' 

(b) Adjectives 

174. -ugr: rddugr 'sagacious,' prudugr 'strong.' 
-ottr: kollottr 'bald,' gndottr 'fierce.' 

-lauss '-less': fe-lauss 'moneyless,' otta-lauss 'without fear.' 
-ligr '-ly': undr-ligr 'wonderful,' sann-ligr 'probable' (sannr, true). 
-samr: iTkn-samr 'gracious,' skyn-samr 'intelligent.' 
-verSr '-ward': ofan-verdr 'upper.' 

(c) Verbs 

175. -na: brotna 'be broken' {brotinn, broken), hvTtna 'become white,' vakna 
'awake.' Used to form intransitive and inchoative verbs of the third conj. 

(d) Adverbs 

176. -liga '-ly': undar-liga 'wonderfully,' st^rk-liga 'strongly' (st^rkr, strong). 
-um, dat. pi.: storum 'greatly' (storr, great). 

Chapter 5 

177. Icelandic syntax greatly resembles Old English, but has several peculiar- 
ities of its own. 

5.1 Concord 

178. Concord is carried out very strictly in Icelandic: allir m^nn vdru bunir 
'all the men were ready,' allir vdru drepnir 'all were killed.' 

179. A plural adj. or pronoun referring to two nouns of different (natural or 
grammatical) gender is always put in the neuter: pd gekk hann upp, ok med honum 
Loki (masc), okPjdlfi (masc), okRgskva (fem.). pd erpau (neut.) hgfdu iTtla hrid 
g^ngit... 'he landed, and with him L., and P., and R. When they had walked for 
some time. . . ' 

5.2 Cases 

180. The extensive use of the instrumental dative is very characteristic of Ice- 
landic: whenever the direct object of a verb can be considered as the instrument of 
the action expressed by the verb, it is put in the dative, as in kasta spjoti 'throw a 
spear' (lit. 'throw with a spear'), hann helt hamarskaptinu 'he grasped the handle 
of the hammer,' heita pvT 'promise that,' jdta pvT 'agree to that.' 


50 An Icelandic Primer 

5.3 Adjectives 

181. The weak form of adjectives is used as in O.E. after the definite article, 
pessi and other demonstratives, annarr (other) is always strong. 

182., An adj. is often set in apposition to a following noun to denote part of it: 
eiga hdlft dyrit 'to have half of the animal,' gnnur pau 'the rest of them,' ofmidja 
ndtt 'in the middle of the night.' 

5.3.1 Pronouns 

183. sd is often put pleonastically before the definite article inn, both before 
and after the subst.: sd inn ungi madr 'that young man,' hafitpat it djupa 'the deep 

184. The definite article is generally not expressed at all, or else einn, einnhv^rr 
is used. 

185. A noun (often a proper name) is often put in apposition to a dual pron. of 
the first and second persons, or a plur. of the third person: pit felagar, 'thou and 
thy companions,' med peim Aka 'with him and Aki.' Similarly st^ndr Porr upp ok 
peir felagar 'Thor and his companions get up.' 

186. The plurals ver, per are sometimes used instead of the singulars ek, pu, 
especially when a king is speaking or being spoken to. 

187. sik and ser are used in a strictly reflexive sense, referring back to the sub- 
ject of the sentence, like se in Latin: Porr baud honum til matar med ser 'Thor 
asked him to supper with him.' 

5.3.2 Verbs 

188. The tenses for which there is no inflection in the active, and all those of 
the passive, are formed by the auxiliaries skal (shall), hafa (have), vera (be) with 
the infin. and ptc. pret., much as in modern English. 

189. The historical present is much used, often alternating abruptly with the 

190. The middle voice is used: (1) in a purely reflexive sense: spara 'spare,' 
sparask 'spare oneself, reserve one's strength.' (2) intransitively: bua 'prepare,' 
bUask 'become ready, be ready' ; s^tja 'set,' s^tjask 'sit down' ; syna 'show,' synask 
'appear, seem.' (3) reciprocally: b^rja 'strike,' b^rjask 'fight'; hitta, 'find,' hittask 
'meet.' In other cases it specializes the meaning of the verb, often emphasizing the 
idea of energy or eff'ort: koma 'come,' komask 'make one's way.' 

5.3 Adjectives 51 

191. The impersonal form of expression is widely used in Icelandic: rak a 
storm (ace.) fyrir peim 'a storm was driven in their face.' 

192. The indef. 'one' is expressed in the same way by the third pers. sg., and 
this form of expression is often used when the subject is perfectly definite: ok 
freista skal pessar Tprottar 'and this feat shall be tried (by you).' 

193. The abrupt change from the indirect to the direct narration is very com- 
mon: Haraldi konungi var sagt at par var komit bjarndyri, 'ok a Isl^nzkr madr,' 
'King Harold was told that a bear had arrived, and that an Icelander owned it.' The 
direct narration is also used after at (that): hann svarar at 'ek skal rida til H^ljar' 
'he answers that he will ride to Hel.' 

Part II 



Chapter 6 

P>orr er asanna framastr, sa er kallaSr er Asa-|)orr e6a 
Oku-|)orr; hann er stgrkastr allra gu3anna ok manna. 
Hann a |)ar rlki er P>ru3-vangar heita, en HqU bans heitir 
BilskTrnir; T J)eim sal eru fimm hundrud golfa ok fjorir tigir; 
|)at er hus mest, sva at mgnn hafa gQrt. 

P>orr a hafra tva, er sva heita, Tann-gnjostr ok Tann- 
grisnir, ok reiS J)a er hann gkr, en hafrarnir draga reiSina; 
J)vT er hann kallaSr Qkujjorr. Hann a ok Jjrja kost-gripi. 
Einn jaeira er hamarrinn MJQllnir, er hrTm-J)ursar ok berg- 
risar kgnna, |)a er hann komr a lopt, ok er J)at eigi undarligt: 
hann hgfir lamit margan haus a fgdrum e5a fraendum J)eira. 
Annan grip a hann bgztan, mggin-gjardar; ok er hann 
spgnnir |)eim um sik, |)a vgx honum as-mggin halfu. En 
}3ri5ja hlut a hann J)ann er mikill gripr er T, Jiat eru jarn- 
glofar; Jseira ma hann eigi missa vi5 hamarskaptit. En 
engi er sva fro6r at tglja kunni qU stor-virki hans. 


Chapter 7 

Thor and UgarSaloki 

P>at er upp-haf |)essa mals at Qkujjorr for me6 hafra sTna 
ok reiS, ok me6 honum sa ass er Loki er kallaSr; koma 
J)eir at kveldi til eins bonda ok fa |)ar natt-staS. En um 
kveldit tok P>orr hafra sTna, ok skar ba3a; gptir J)at varu 
|3eir flggnir ok bornir til kgtils; en er soSit var, |3a sgttisk 
P>orr til natt-verSar ok J)eir lags-mgnn. P>orr bau5 til matar 
me5 ser bondanum, ok konu bans, ok b^rnum J)eira; sonr 
bonda het Pjalfi, en RQskva dottir. P>a lagdi P>orr hafr- 
stQkurnar utar fra eldinum, ok maelti at bondi ok heima-mgnn 
bans skyldu kasta a hafrstQkurnar beinunum. Pjalfi, sonr 
bonda, belt a laer-lggg hafrsins, ok sprgtti a knifi sTnum, ok 
braut til mgrgjar. P>orr dvaldisk |)ar of nattina; en T ottu 
fyrir dag sto5 hann upp, ok klaeddi sik, tok hamarinn 
MJQllni ok bra upp, ok vTgSi hafrstQkurnar; stoSu |)a upp 
hafrarnir, ok var Jja annarr haltr gptra foeti. Pat fann P>orr, 
ok talSi at bondinn eSa bans hjon mundi eigi skynsamliga 
hafa farit meS beinum hafrsins: kgnnir hann at brotinn var 
laerlgggrinn. Eigi J)arf langt fra |)vT at sggja: vita mggu |)at 
allir hvgrsu hrseddr bondinn mundi vera, er hann sa at P>orr 
let sTga brynnar ofan fyrir augun; en |)at er sa augnanna, 
|)a hugdisk hann falla mundu fyrir sjoninni einni samt; hann 
hgrSi hgndrnar at hamar-skaptinu sva at hvTtnudu knuarnir. 
En bondinn gQrSi sem van var, ok 9II hjonin: k^UuSu aka- 
fliga, baSu ser friSar, bu5u at fyrir kvsemi alt J)at er J)au 
attu. En er hann sa hraezlu J)eira, J)a gekk af honum 


58 An Icelandic Primer 

modrinn, ok sefaSisk hann; ok tok af |)eim T saett bgrn 
|)eira, Pjalfa ok RQsku, ok gprdusk |)au |)a skyldir J)jonustu- 
mgnn P>ors, ok fylgja Jsau honum jafnan siSan. 

Let hann Jsar gptir hafra, ok byrjadi fgrdina austr T 
jQtun-heima, ok alt til hafsins; ok |)a for hann ut yfir 
hafit J)at it djupa; en er hann kom til lands, J)a gekk hann 
upp, ok me6 honum Loki, ok Pjalfi, ok RQskva. P>a er }3au 
hQfSu lltla hri5 ggngit, varS fyrir J)eim mprk stor; gengu 
|)au J)ann dag allan til myrkrs. Pjalfi var allra manna 
fot-hvatastr; hann bar kyl Pors, en til vista var eigi gott. 
P>a er myrkt var orSit, leituSu |)eir ser til nattstaSar, ok 
fundu fyrir ser skala nakkvarn mJQk mikinn, varu dyrr a 
gnda, ok jafn-breiSar skalanum; }3ar leituSu jieir ser natt- 
bols. En of midja natt var5 land-skjalfti mikill, gekk JQrdin 
undir J)eim skykkjum, ok skalf husit. P>a sto6 P>orr upp, ok 
het a lagsmgnn sina; ok leituSusk fyrir, ok fundu af-hus til 
hoegri handar i miSjum skalanum, ok gengu J)annig; sgttisk 
Porr I dyrrin, en Qnnur J)au varu innar fra honum, ok varu 
|)au hraedd, en P>orr helt hamarskaptinu, ok hugSi at vgrja 
sik; |)a heyrdu |)au ym mikinn ok gny. En er kom at 
dagan, |)a gekk P>orr ut, ok ser hvar la ma8r skamt fra 
honum T skoginum, ok var sa eigi iTtill; hann svaf, ok hraut 
stgrkliga. P>a J)ottisk P>orr skiija hvat latum verit hafSi of 
nattina; hann spgnnir sik mggingJQrSum, ok ox honum 
asmggin; en T J)vT vaknar madr sa, ok sto6 skjott upp; en 
J)a er sagt at P>or varS bilt einu sinni at sla hann meS ham- 
rinum; ok spurSi hann at nafni, en sa ngfndisk Skrymir: 
'en eigi Jjarf ek,' sagSi hann, 'at spyrja J)ik at nafni: kgnni 
ek at J)u ert AsaJ)orr; en hvart hgfir J)u drggit a braut hanzka 
minn?' Seildisk J)a Skrymir til, ok tok upp hanzka sinn; 
ser I'orr |)a at J)at hafdi hann haft of nattina fyrir skala, en 
afhusit J)at var Jjumlungrinn hanzkans. Skrymir spurSi ef 
P>orr vildi hafa f^ru-neyti hans, en P>orr jatti JjvT. P>a tok 
Skrymir ok leysti nestbagga sinn, ok bjosk til at eta dQgurS, 
en P>orr i Qdrum sta6 ok hans felagar. Skrymir baud J)a at 
|)eir Iggdi mQtu-neyti sitt, en P>orr jatti J)vi; Jja batt Skrymir 
nest |)eira alt T einn bagga, ok lagSi a bak ser; hann gekk 
fyrir of daginn, ok steig hgldr storum, en siSan at kveldi 


leitadi Skrymir Jjeim nattstadar undir eik nakkvarri mikilli. 
P>a maelti Skrymir til Pors at hann vill Igggjask niSr at 
sofna; 'en }3er takiS nest-baggann, ok buiS til natt-verdar 
y6r.' P>vl naest sofnar Skrymir, ok hraut fast; en P>orr tok 
nest-baggann ok skal leysa; en sva er at sggja, sem u-truligt 
mun J)ykkja, at engi knut fekk hann leyst, ok engi alar- 
gndann hreyft, sva at J)a vseri lausari en aSr. Ok er hann 
ser at J)etta verk ma eigi nytask, |)a varS hann reiSr, greip 
|)a hamarinn MJQllni tveim h^ndum, ok steig fram QSrum 
foeti at Jjar er Skrymir la, ok lystr T h^fuS honum; en 
Skrymir vaknar, ok spyrr hvart laufs-bla3 nakkvat felli T 
hQfu3 honum, eSa hvart Jjeir hgf3i J)a matazk, ok se bunir 
til rgkkna. P>orr sggir at jieir munu |)a sofa ganga. Ganga 
}3au }3a undir adra eik. Er J)at Jjer satt at sggja, at ekki var 
J)a ottalaust at sofa. En at miSri natt J)a heyrir P>orr at 
Skrymir hrytr, ok sofr fast, sva at dunar i skoginum. P>a 
stgndr hann upp, ok ggngr til hans, reiSir hamarinn tltt ok 
hart, ok lystr of an T miSjan hvirfil honum; hann kgnnir at 
hamars-muSrinn sokkr djupt T h^fuSit. En i Jjvi bill vaknar 
Skrymir, ok maelti: 'hvat er nu? fell akarn nakkvat T h^fud 
mer? e5a hvat er tltt um J)ik, I>orr?' En P>orr gekk aptr 
skyndiliga, ok svarar at hann var J)a nyvaknaSr, sagSi at |)a 
var mid natt, ok enn vaeri mal at sofa. P>a hugsaSi P>orr J)at, 
ef hann kvaemi sva T foeri at sla hann it J)ri5ja hQgg, at aldri 
skyldi hann sja sik sTdan; liggr nu ok gaetir ef Skrymir 
sofnaSi fast. En litlu fyrir dagan |)a heyrir hann at Skrymir 
mun sofnat hafa; stgndr |)a upp, ok hleypr at honum, reiSir 
|)a hamarinn af qUu afli ok lystr a Jjunn-vangann jjann er 
upp vissi; sokkr J)a hamarrinn upp at skaptinu. En Skry- 
mir sgttisk upp, ok strauk of vangann, ok maelti: 'hvart 
munu fuglar nakkvarir sitja T trenu yfir mer? mik grunaSi, 
er ek vaknada, at tros nakkvat af kvistunum felli T hgfuS 
mer; hvart vakir Jju, P>orr? Mal mun vera upp at standa 
ok klaedask, en ekki eigu J)er nu langa leid fram til borgar- 
innar er k^Uud er Ut-gar5r. Heyrt hgfi ek at J)er hafid 
kvisat I milli ySvar at ek vaera ekki iTtill maSr vgxti, en sja 
skulu |)er J)ar stoerri mgnn, er J)er komiS i UtgarS. Nu mun 
ek raSa ySr heil-raeSi: lati |)er eigi storliga yfir y8r, ekki 

60 An Icelandic Primer 

munu hirdmgnn Utgar5a-loka vel |)ola Jjvllikum kQgur- 

sveinum kQpur-yrdi; en at Qdrum kosti hverfid aptr, ok 

|)ann aetla ek ySr bgtra af at taka. En ef Jjer vilid fram 
105 fara, Jsa stgfni Jser T austr, en ek a nu nordr leid til fjalla 

|)essa er nu munu Jjer sja mega.' Tgkr Skrymir nest-bag- 

garm, ok kastar a bak ser, ok snyr J)vgrs a braut T skoginn 

fra J)eim, ok er Jjess eigi getit at aesirnir bsedi J)a heila 

no P>orr for fram a leiS ok J)eir felagar, ok gekk fram til miSs 

dags; |)a sa |)eir borg standa a VQllum npkkurum, ok sgttu 

hnakkann a bak ser aptr, a8r |)eir fengu set yfir upp; ganga 

til borgarinnar, ok var grind fyri borg-hli8inu, ok lokin aptr. 

P>orr gekk a grindina, ok fekk eigi upp lokit; en er jieir 
115 jDreyttu at komask T borgina, Jja smugu Jjeir milli spalanna 

ok komu sva inn; sa J)a HqU mikla, ok gengu J)annig; var 

hurSin opin; J)a gengu J)eir inn, ok sa J)ar marga mgnn 

a tva bgkki, ok fiesta oerit stora. {>vT nsest koma J)eir fyrir 

konunginn, UtgarSaloka, ok kvQddu hann, en hann leit seint 
120 til J)eira, ok glotti um tQnn, ok maelti: 'seint er um langan 

veg at spyrja tidinda, e5a er annan veg en ek hygg, at |)essi 

svein-stauli se QkuJ)orr? en meiri muntu vera en mer iTzk 

J)u; e6a hvat Tjjrotta er J)at er |)er felagar J)ykkizk vera vi5 

bunir? Engi skal her vera meS oss sa er eigi kunni nakkvars 
125 konar list e6a kunnandi um fram fiesta mgnn.' P>a sggir sa 

er sTdast gekk, er Loki heitir: 'kann ek |)a Tj)rott, er ek em 

al-buinn at reyna, at engi er her sa inni er skjotara skal eta 

mat sinn en ek.' P>a svarar UtgarSaloki: 'iJ)rott er J)at, ef 

|)u gfnir, ok freista skal J)a J)essar Tjjrottar;' kallaSi utar a 
130 bgkkinn at sa er Logi heitir skal ganga a golf fram, ok freista 

sin I moti Loka. P>a var tgkit trog eitt, ok borit inn a hallar- 

golfit, ok fylt af slatri; sgttisk Loki at Qdrum gnda, en Logi 

at 93rum, ok at hvarr-tvgggja sem tT3ast, ok moettusk T midju 

troginu; hafdi }3a Loki etit slatr alt af beinum, en Logi haf3i 
135 ok etit slatr alt ok beinin me3, ok sva trogit; ok syndisk nu 

Qllum sem Loki hgf5i latit leikinn. P>a spyrr Utgardaloki 

hvat sa inn ungi maSr kunni leika. En Pjalfi sggir at hann 

mun freista at rgnna skeiS n^kkur vi3 einn-hvgrn J)ann er 

Utgardaloki faer til. Hann sggir, UtgarSaloki, at jjetta er 


140 go5 Tjjrott, ok kallar |)ess meiri van at hann se vel at ser 
buinn of skjotleikinn, ef hann skal J)essa T|)rott inna; en |)o 
laetr hann skjott J)essa skulu freista. Stgndr |)a upp UtgarSa- 
loki, ok ggngr ut, ok var Jsar gott skeid at rgnna gptir slettum 
vgUi. P>a kallar UtgarSaloki til sin sveinstaula nakkvarn, er 

145 ngfndr er Hugi, ok bad hann rgnna I kQpp vi5 P>jalfa. P>a 
taka J)eir it fyrsta skeiS, ok er Hugi J)vT framar at hann 
snysk aptr T moti honum at skeiSs gnda. P>a mselti UtgarSa- 
loki: '}3urfa muntu, Pjalfi, at Igggja J)ik meir fram, ef J)u 
skalt vinna leikinn; en Jjo er J)at satt, at ekki hafa her komit 

150 Jjeir mgnn er mer |)ykkja fothvatari en sva.' P>a taka |)eir 
aptr annat skeid, ok Jja er Hugi er kominn til skeids gnda, 
ok hann snysk aptr, Jja var langt kolf-skot til Pjalfa. P>a 
mselti UtgarSaloki: 'vel Jjykkir mer Pjalfi rgnna; en eigi 
trui ek honum nu at hann vinni leikinn, en nu mun reyna, 

155 er |)eir rgnna it JjriSja skeiSit.' P>a taka J)eir gnn skeiS; en 
er Hugi er kominn til skeiSs gnda ok snysk aptr, ok er 
P>jalfi eigi J)a kominn a mitt skeiSit; }3a sggja allir at reynt 
er um J)enna leik. P>a spyrr UtgarSaloki P>or, hvat J)eira 
IJ)rotta mun vera er hann muni vilja birta fyrir |)eim, sva 

160 miklar SQgur sem mgnn hafa ggrt um storvirki hans. P>a 
maelti P>orr at hglzt vill hann ]3at taka til, at Jjreyta drykkju 
vi5 einnhvgrn mann. Utgardaloki sggir at Jjat ma vel vera; 
ok ggngr inn T h^Uina, ok kallar skutil-svein sinn, bidr at 
hann taki vTtis-horn J)at, er hirdmgnn eru vanir at drekka af. 

165 P>vT naest komr fram skutilsveinn me6 horninu, ok fser P>or T 
hgnd. Pa maelti Utgardaloki: 'af horni |)essu |)ykkir |)a 
vel drukkit, ef T einum drykk ggngr af, en sumir mgnn 
drekka af I tveim drykkjum, en engi er sva lltill drykkju- 
maSr, at eigi gangi af i J)rimr.' P>orr litr a hornit, ok synisk 

170 ekki mikit, ok er |)o hgldr langt, en hann er mJQk |)yrstr; 
tgkr at drekka, ok svelgr allstorum, ok hyggr at eigi skal 
}3urfa at luta optar at sinni T hornit. En er hann jjraut 
orindit, ok hann laut or horninu, ok ser hvat leid drykkinum, 
ok lizk honum sva, sem all-litill munr mun vera at nu se 

175 Isegra T horninu en a6r. Pa maelti Utgardaloki: 'vel er 
drukkit, ok eigi til mikit; eigi munda-k trua, ef mer vaeri 
sagt fra, at Asa|)orr mundi eigi meira drykk drekka; en 

62 An Icelandic Primer 

J)o veit ek at J)u munt vilja drekka af T Q6rum drykk.' 
P>orr svarar engu, sgtr hornit a munn ser, ok hyggr nu at 
hann skal drekka meira drykk, ok Jireytir a drykkjuna, sem 
honum vannsk til orindi, ok ser gnn at stikillinn hornsins 
vill ekki upp sva mjpk sem honum likar; ok er hann tok 
hornit af munni ser ok ser, iTzk honum nu sva, sem minna 
hafi }3orrit en T inu fyrra sinni; er nu gott beranda bor3 
a horninu. P>a mselti UtgarSaloki: 'hvat er nu, P>orr? 
muntu nu eigi sparask til eins drykkjar meira en Jjer mun 
hagr a vera? Sva iTzk mer, ef J)u skalt nu drekka af horninu 
inn |)ri5ja drykkinn, sem J)essi mun mestr aetladr; en ekki 
muntu mega her me3 oss heita sva mikill ma3r sem aesir 
kalla |)ik, ef }3U gQrir eigi meira af }3er um aSra leika en mer 
iTzk sem um J)enna mun vera.' P>a var5 P>orr rei5r, sgtr 
hornit a munn ser, ok drekkr sem akafligast ma hann, ok 
J)reytir sem Igngst a drykkinn; en er hann sa T hornit, ^a 
haf3i nu hglzt nakkvat munr a fgngizk, ok Jja by5r hann upp 
hornit, ok vill eigi drekka meira. P>a maelti UtgarSaloki: 
'au5-set er nu at mattr J)inn er ekki sva mikill sem ver 
hugdum; en vill-tu freista um fleiri leika? Sja ma nu, at 
ekki nytir |)u her af.' Porr svarar: 'freista ma ek gnn of 
nakkvara leika, en undarliga mundi mer |)ykkja, |)a er ek var 
heima me5 asum, ef JDVilTkir drykkir vaeri sva iTtlir kalladir. En 
hvat leik vili J)er nu bjoda mer?' P>a maelti Utgardaloki: 'J)at 
gQra her ungir sveinar er litit mark mun at Jjykkja, at hg^a 
upp af JQrSu kgtt minn; en eigi munda-k kunna at maela 
J)vTlTkt vi3 Asa|)or, ef ek hgfSa eigi set fyrr at |)u ert miklu 
minni fyrir }3er en ek hugSa.' P>vT nsest hljop fram kQttr 
einn grar a hallargolfit, ok hgldr mikill; en P>orr gekk til, ok 
tok hgndi sinni nidr undir miSjan kviSinn, ok lypti upp, en 
kQttrinn beygdi kgnginn, sva sem P>orr retti upp h^ndina; en 
er Porr seildisk sva langt upp sem hann matti Igngst, Jsa letti 
kQttrinn einum foeti, ok faer P>orr eigi framit J)enna leik. P>a 
mselti Utgardaloki: 'sva for Jjessi leikr sem mik vardi; 
kQttrinn er hgldr mikill, en P>orr er lagr ok litill hja stor- 
mgnni J)vT sem her er me3 oss.' Pa mselti P>orr: 'sva litinn 
sem per kalli3 mik, J)a gangi nu til einnhvgrr, ok faisk vi3 
mik; nu em ek reiSr.' P>a svarar UtgarSaloki, ok litask um 


a bgkkina, ok mselti: 'eigi se ek |)ann mann her inni, er 
eigi mun iTtil-raeSi T |)ykkja at fask vi5 J)ik;' ok gnn mselti 
hann: 'sjam fyrst, kalli mer hingat kgrlinguna, fostru mlna 
511i, ok faisk P>orr vi5 hana, ef hann vill; fglt hgfir hon J)a 

220 mgnn er mer hafa litizk eigi u-stgrkligri en P>orr er.' P>vl 
nsest gekk T h^Uina kgrling ein gQmul. P>a maelti Utgar- 
Saloki, at hon skal taka fang vi8 AsaJ)or. Ekki er langt um. 
at gpra: sva for fang J)at at }3vT harSara er P>orr knuSisk at 
fanginu, JjvT fastara sto8 hon; J)a tok kgrling at leita til 

225 Jjragda, ok var8 P>orr |)a lauss a fotum, ok varu Jjaer svip- 
tingar all-har8ar, ok eigi Igngi a3r en Porr fell a kne gSrum 
foeti. P>a gekk til UtgarSaloki, bad Jjau haetta fanginu, ok 
sagdi sva, at P>orr mundi eigi Jjurfa at bjoSa fleirum m^nnum 
fang T hans h^U; var Jia ok lidit a natt, visadi Utgardaloki 

230 P>or ok J)eim felQgum til saetis, ok dvgljask J)ar natt-langt T 
goSum fagnaSi. 

En at morgni, J)egar dagaSi, stgndr P>orr upp ok }3eir 
felagar, klseSa sik, ok eru bunir braut at ganga. P>a kom 
J)ar Utgardaloki, ok let sgtja Jjeim borS; skorti J)a eigi 

235 godan fagnad, mat ok drykk. En er Jjeir hafa matazk, J)a 
snuask |)eir til fgrdar. Utgardaloki fylgir |)eim ut, ggngr 
me5 Jjeim braut or borginni; en at skilnadi J)a maelti Utgar- 
daloki til P>ors, ok spyrr hvgrnig honum J)ykkir fgrS sin 
ordin, e5a hvart hann hgfir hitt rikara mann nakkvarn en 

240 sik. P>orr svarar at eigi mun hann Jiat sggja, at eigi hafi 
hann mikla u-soem5 farit T J)eira vi5-skiptum; 'en |)o veit 
ek at Jjer munuS kalla mik iTtinn mann fyrir mer, ok uni ek 
Jjvi ilia.' P>a maelti Utgardaloki: 'nu skal sggja J)er it sanna, 
er J)u ert ut kominn or borginni — ok ef ek lifi ok mega-k 

245 raSa, Jja skaltu aldri optar i hana koma; ok J)at veit trua 
mm, at aldri hgfdir Jju I hana komit, ef ek hgfSa vitat aSr at 
|)u hgfdir sva mikinn krapt me6 }3er, ok J)u hafSir sva naer 
haft OSS mikilli u-foeru. En sjon-hvgrfingar hgfi ek gQrt Jier, 
sva at fyrsta sinn, er ek fann |)ik a skoginum, kom ek til 

250 fundar vi5 y5r; ok Jja er }3U skyldir leysa nestbaggann, J)a 
haf5a-k bundit meS gres-jarni, en J)u fannt eigi hvar upp 
skyldi luka. En J)vl naest laust |)u mik me6 hamrinum J)rju 
hQgg, ok var it fyrsta minst, ok var |)o sva mikit, at mer 

64 An Icelandic Primer 

mundi gndask til bana, ef a hgfSi komit; en J)ar er J)u satt 
255 hja hQll minni set-berg, ok }3ar satt-u ofan T J)rja dala fer- 

skeytta ok einn djupastan, Jsat varu hamarspor J)in; setber- 

ginu bra ek fyrir hoggin en eigi satt Jju Jjat. Sva var ok of 

leikana, er J)er J)reyttu5 vi5 hirSmgnn mina. P>a var J)at it 

fyrsta, er Loki gQrSi; hann var mJQk soltinn, ok at titt; en 
260 sa er Logi het, J)at var villi-eldr, ok brgndi hann eigi seinna 

slatrit en trogit. En er P>jalfi |)reytti rasina vi5 jiann er 

Hugi het, J)at var hugi minn, ok var P>jalfa eigi vsent at 

J)reyta skjot-foeri vi5 hann. En er J)u drakkt af horninu, ok 

J)otti |)er seint lT6a, — en |)at veit trua mm, at |)a var8 J)at 
265 undr, er ek munda eigi trua at vera maetti; annarr gndir 

hornsins var ut T hafi, en }3at sattu eigi; en nu, er Jju komr 

til ssevarins, Jja mun-tu sja mega, hvgrn J)ur8 Jju hgfir drukkit 

a saenum.' P>at eru nu fJQrur kallaSar. Ok gnn maelti hann: 

'eigi Jjotti mer hitt minna vera vert, er Jju lyptir upp kgt- 
270 tinum, ok J)er satt at sggja, J)a hrseddusk allir J)eir er sa, 

er J5U lyptir af JQr8u einum foetinum; en sa kQttr var eigi 

sem J)er syndisk; Jjat var Mi8gar8s-ormr, er liggr um iQnd 

qU, ok vannsk honum varliga Igngdin til, at JQrdina toeki 

sporSr ok h^fud; ok sva langt seildisk |)u upp at skamt var 
275 |)a til himins. En hitt var ok mikit undr um fangit, er J)u 

fekkzk vi8 ^Ui; fyrir J)vT at engi hgfir sa ordit, ok engi 

mun ver8a, ef sva gamall er at gUi bT6r, at eigi komi gUin 

Qllum til falls. Ok er nu |)at satt at sggja, at ver munum 

skiljask, ok mun J)a bgtr hvarratvgggju handar at |)er komi3 
280 eigi optar mik at hitta; ek mun gnn annat sinn vgrja borg 

mina me3 J)vilikum velum e5a Q5rum, sva at ekki vald munu 

|)er a mer fa.' En er P>orr heyrSi J)essa tQlu, greip hann til 

hamarsins, ok bregSr a lopt; en er hann skal fram reiSa, Jja 

ser hann J)ar hvgrgi UtgarSaloka, ok |)a snysk hann aptr til 
285 borgarinnar, ok aetlask |)a fyrir at brjota borgina; |)a ser 

hann }3ar vqUu vT5a ok fagra, en enga borg. Snysk hann 

J)a aptr, ok fgrr leid sina, til J)ess er hann kom aptr T P>ru6- 


Chapter 8 

Annarr sonr OSins er Baldr, ok er fra honum gott at 
sggja: hann er bgztr, ok hann lofa allir. Hann er sva fagr 
a-litum ok bjartr sva at lysir af honum; ok eitt gras er sva 
hvTtt at jafnat er til Baldrs brar, }3at er allra grasa hvTtast; 
ok Jjar gptir mattu marka bans fggrS, baeSi a bar ok a iTki; 
hann er vitrastr asanna, ok fggrstr taliSr ok iTknsamastr. En 
su nattura fylgir honum at engi ma haldask domr bans. 
Hann byr J)ar sem beitir Brei6a-blik, |)at er a bimni; T Jjeim 
sta6 ma ekki vera u-breint, sva sem ber sggir: 

BreiSablik beita, ]3ar er Baldr bgfir 

ser of gprva sali; 
T J)vT landi er ek liggja veit 

faesta feikn-stafi. 


Chapter 9 

The Death of Balder 

P>at er upphaf Jjessar SQgu, at Baldr inn go5a dreymdi 
drauma stora ok hsettliga um lif sitt. En er hann sagdi 
asunum draumana, |)a baru J)eir saman ra3 sin, ok var J)at 
gQrt at beiSa griSa Baldri fyrir alls konar haska; ok Frigg 
tok svardaga til Jjess, at eira skyldu Baldri eldr ok vatn, jarn 
ok alls konar malmr, steinar, JQrSin, viSirnir, sottirnar, dyrin, 
fuglarnir, eitr, ormar. En er J)etta var g^rt ok vitat, |)a var 
|)at skgmtun Baldrs ok asanna at hann skyldi standa upp a 
|)ingum, en allir aSrir skyldu sumir skjota a hann, sumir 
hQggva til, sumir bgrja grjoti. En hvat sem at var gprt, 
sakadi hann ekki, ok Jjotti Jjetta Qllum mikill frami. En er 
J)etta sa Loki Laufeyjar-son, J)a likadi honum ilia er Baldr 
sakaSi ekki. Hann gekk til Fgn-salar til Friggjar, ok bra 
ser T konu iTki; J)a spyrr Frigg ef su kona vissi hvat sesir 
hQfSusk at a jjinginu. Hon sagSi at allir skutu at Baldri, 
ok }3at, at hann sakaSi ekki. P>a mselti Frigg: 'eigi munu 
vapn eSa viSir granda Baldri; eida hgfi ek Jjggit af Qllum 
}3eim.' P>a spyrr konan: 'hafa allir hlutir eida unnit at eira 
Baldri?' P>a svarar Frigg: 'vgx vidar-teinungr einn fyrir 
vestan Val-h^U; sa er Mistilteinn kallaSr; sa }3otti mer ungr 
at krgfja eiSsins.' P>vT naest hvarf konan a braut; en Loki 
tok Mistiltein ok sleit upp, ok gekk til J)ings. En H^dr sto5 
utarliga T mannhringinum, |)vl at hann var blindr. P>a maelti 
Loki vi6 hann: 'hvT skytr |)u ekki at Baldri?' Hann svarar: 
'J)vT at ek se eigi, hvar Baldr er, ok J)at annat, at ek em 


68 An Icelandic Primer 

vapnlauss.' P>a maelti Loki: 'gQr-5u J)o T liking annarra, 
manna, ok veit Baldri soemd sem aSrir mgnn; ek mun visa 
J)er til, hvar hann stgndr; skjot at honum vgndi Jjessum.' 
HQdr tok Mistiltein, ok skaut at Baldri at tilvTsun Loka; 
flaug skotit I gggnum hann, ok fell hann dauSr til jarSar; ok 
hgfir J)at mest u-happ verit unnit med goSum ok m^nnum. 
P>a er Baldr var fallinn, J)a fellusk Qllum asum or3-tQk, ok 
sva hgndr at taka til hans; ok sa hvgrr til annars, ok varu 
allir me3 einum hug til J)ess er unnit haf5i verkit; en engi 
matti hgfna: Jjar var sva mikill gri5a-sta5r. En J)a er 
gesirnir freistudu at maela, J)a var hitt |)o fyrr, at gratrinn 
kom upp, sva at engi matti gSrum sggja me6 ordunum fra 
sTnum harmi. En 06inn bar }3eim mun vgrst |)enna skada, 
sem hann kunni mesta skyn, hvgrsu mikil af-taka ok missa 
asunum var I fra-falli Baldrs. En er go6in vitkuSusk, J)a 
maelti Frigg ok spur3i, hvgrr sa vaeri me8 asum, er eignask 
vildi allar astir hennar ok hylli, ok vili hann riSa a hgl-veg 
ok freista ef hann fai fundit Baldr, ok bjoSa Hglju ut-lausn, 
ef hon vill lata fara Baldr heim T As-gar5. En sa er ngfndr 
HgrmoSr inn hvati, sonr Odins, er til J)eirar farar var6. P>a 
var tgkinn Sleipnir, hestr OSins, ok leiddr fram, ok steig 
HgrmoSr a }3ann hest, ok hleyp3i braut. 

En aesirnir toku iTk Baldrs ok fluttu til ssevar. Hring- 
horni het skip Baldrs, hann var allra skipa mestr; hann 
vildu godin fram sgtja, ok gpra |)ar a bal-f^r Baldrs; en 
skipit gekk hvgrgi fram. P>a var sgnt T jQtunheima gptir 
gygi J)eiri er Hyrrokin het; en er hon kom, ok reiS vargi, 
ok hafSi hQgg-orm at taumum, Jja hljop hon af hestinum, 
en OSinn kallaSi til ber-sgrki fjora at gaeta hestsins, ok fengu 
J)eir eigi haldit, nema J)eir fgldi hann. Pa gekk Hyrrokin a 
fram-stafn n^kkvans, ok hratt fram T fyrsta vi5-brag5i, sva 
at eldr hraut or hlunnunum, ok Ignd 9II skulfu. P>a var5 
Porr reiSr, ok greip hamarinn, ok mundi }3a brjota h^fuS 
hgnnar, a5r en godin qU badu hgnni fridar. P>a var borit 
ut a skipit iTk Baldrs; ok er J)at sa kona hans, Nanna, Neps 
dottir, J)a sprakk hon af harmi, ok do; var hon borin a 
balit, ok slggit 1 eldi. P>a sto5 P>orr at, ok vTgSi balit me6 
MJQllni; en fyrir fotum hans rann dvergr nakkvarr, sa er 


Litr ngfndr; en P>orr spyrndi foeti sTnum a hann, ok hratt 
honum T eldinn, ok brann hann. En at Jjessi brgnnu sotti 
margs konar Jjjod: fyrst at sggja fra 05ni, at me5 honum 
for Frigg ok valkyrjur ok hrafnar hans; en Freyr ok T kgrru 
meS gglti J)eim er GuUin-bursti heitir e6a SllSrug-tanni; en 
Heimdallr reiS hesti J)eim er Gull-toppr heitir; en Freyja 
kQttum sTnum. P>ar komr ok mikit folk hrTm|)ursa, ok berg- 
risar. OSinn lagSi a balit gullhring J)ann er Draupnir 
heitir; honum fylgSi siSan su nattura, at hina niundu hvgrja 
natt drupu af honum atta gullhringar jafn-h^fgir. Hestr 
Baldrs var leiddr a balit me6 qUu reidi. 

En |)at er at sggja fra Hgrmodi, at hann reid niu naetr 
dokkva dala ok djupa, sva at hann sa ekki, fyrr en hann 
kom til arinnar Gjallar, ok reiS a Gjallar-bruna; hon er 
J)Qk5 lysi-guUi. Mo5gu5r er ngfnd maer su er gsetir bruar- 
innar; hon spurSi hann at nafni eSa sett, ok sagSi at hinn 
fyrra dag riSu um bruna fimm fylki dauSra manna; 'en eigi 
dynr bruin minnr undir einum |)er, ok eigi hgfir Jju lit dauSra 
manna; hvi ri5r J)u her a hglveg?' Hann svarar at 'ek 
skal rlda til hgljar at leita Baldrs, e5a hvart hgfir Jju nakkvat 
set Baldr a hglvegi?' En hon sagdi at Baldr hafdi |)ar 
ridit um Gjallarbru; 'en niSr ok norSr liggr hglvegr.' P>a 
reiS HgrmoSr J)ar til er hann kom at hgl-grindum; Jja steig 
hann af hestinum, ok gyrSi hann fast, steig upp, ok keyrSi 
hann sporum, en hestrinn hljop sva hart, ok yfir grindina, at 
hann kom hvgrgi nser. P>a reiS HgrmoSr heim til hallar- 
innar, ok steig af hesti, gekk inn I h^Uina, sa J)ar sitja T 
Qndvegi Baldr, broSur sinn; ok dvalSisk HgrmoSr J)ar um 
nattina. En at morgni Jja beiddisk HgrmoSr af Hglju at 
Baldr skyldi rlSa heim me5 honum, ok sagSi hvgrsu mikill 
gratr var me8 asum. En Hgl sagSi at J)at skyldi sva reyna, 
hvart Baldr var sva ast-saell sem sagt er; 'ok ef allir hlutir T 
heiminum, kykvir ok daudir, grata hann, J)a skal hann fara 
til asa aptr, en haldask meS Hglju, ef nakkvarr msellr vi5, 
e5a vill eigi grata.' P>a sto5 Hgrmodr upp, en Baldr leidir 
hann ut or hQllinni, ok tok hringinn Draupni, ok sgndi 05ni 
til minja, en Nanna sgndi Frigg ripti ok gnn fleiri gjafar, 
FuUu fingr-guU. Pa reiS HgrmoSr aptr leiS sTna, ok kom T 

70 An Icelandic Primer 

AsgarS, ok sagSi qU tidindi J)au er hann hafSi set ok heyrt. 
P>vT naest sgndu aesir um allan heim orind-reka, at biSja 

at Baldr vseri gratinn or hglju; en allir gQrdu J)at, mgnninir, 
105 ok kykvendin, ok JQrdin, ok steinarnir, ok tre, ok allr malmr; 

sva sem J)u munt set hafa, at |)essir hlutir grata, J)a er J)eir 

koma or frosti ok I hita. P>a er sgndi-mgnn foru heim, ok 

hQfSu vel rekit sin orindi, finna |)eir T hgUi n^kkurum hvar 

gygr sat; hon ngfndisk pQkk. Peir bi3ja hana grata Baldr 
no or hglju. Hon svarar: 

'P>Qkk mun grata JDurrum tarum 
Baldrs balfarar; 

kyks ne dauds naut-k-a-k karls sonar; 
haldi Hgl JjvT es hgfir! ' 

115 En |)ess geta mgnn, at J)ar hafi verit Loki Laufeyjar-son, 

er flest hgfir ilt ggrt me3 asum. 

Chapter 10 
Hedinn and HQgni 

Konungr sa er HQgni er ngfndr atti dottur, er Hildr het. 
Hana tok at hgr-fangi konungr sa er HeSinn het, Hjarranda- 
son. P>a var HQgni konungr farinn T konunga-stgfnu; en er 
hann spurSi at hgrjat var i riki bans, ok dottir bans var i 
braut tgkin, J)a for bann meS sinu liSi at leita HeSins, ok 
spurSi til bans at HeSinn bafSi siglt norSr meS landi. P>a 
er HQgni konungr kom i Noreg, spurdi bann at Hedinn 
bafdi siglt vestr um baf. Pa siglir HQgni gptir bonum allt 
til Orkn-eyja; ok er bann kom J)ar sem beitir Ha-ey, |)a 
var }3ar fyrir HeSinn me6 116 sitt. P>a for Hildr a fund fQSur 
sins, ok baud bonum mgn at ssett af bgndi Hedins, en T Qdru 
orSi sagSi bon at Hedinn vaeri buinn at bgrjask, ok aetti 
HQgni af bonum engrar vsegSar van. HQgni svarar stirt 
dottur sinni; en er bon bitti HeSin, sagSi bon bonum, at 
HQgni vildi enga ssett, ok bad bann buask til orrostu, ok 
sva gQra Jjeir bvarir-tvgggju, ganga upp a eyna, ok fylkja 
liSinu. P>a kallar HeSinn a HQgna, mag sinn, ok baud 
bonum saett ok mikit gull at botum. P>a svarar HQgni: 
'of sT8 bauzt-u Jjetta, ef Jju vill ssettask, |)vT at nu bgfi ek 
drggit Dains-leif, er dvergarnir gQrdu, er manns bani skal 
verda, bvgrt sinn er bgrt er, ok aldri bilar T bQggvi, ok ekki 
sar groer, ef J)ar skeinisk af.' P>a svarar Hedinn: 'sverdi 
boelir J)u |)ar, en eigi sigri; J)at kalla ek gott bvgrt er drottin- 
bolt er.' P>a bofu Jjeir orrostu J)a er Hja5ninga-vTg er kallat, 
ok bQrSusk J)ann dag allan, ok at kveldi foru konungar til 


72 An Icelandic Primer 

skipa. En Hildr gekk of nattina til valsins, ok vak8i upp 
me8 fJQlkyngi alia Jja er dau8ir varu; ok annan dag gengu 
konungarnir a vTg-VQllinn ok b^rdusk, ok sva allir J)eir er 
fellu hinn fyrra daginn. For sva su orrosta hvgrn dag gptir 
annan, at allir J)eir er fellu, ok qU vapn }5au er lagu a vlgvgUi, 
ok sva hllfar, ur8u at grjoti. En er dagaSi, sto8u upp allir 
dauSir mgnn, ok b^rSusk, ok qU vapn varu |)a ny. Sva er 
sagt T kvaeSum, at HjaSningar skulu sva bT6a ragna-rokrs. 

Chapter 11 

The Death of Olaf Tryggvason 

Sveinn konungr tjugu-skggg atti Sigridi hina stor-ra6u. 
Sigridr var hinn mesti u-vinr Olafs konungs Tryggva-sonar; 
ok fann J)at til saka at Olafr konungr hafSi slitit einka-malum 
vi5 hana, ok lostit hana I and-lit. Hon gggjaSi mjgk Svein 
konung til at halda orrostu vi5 Olaf konung Tryggvason, ok 
kom hon sva sinum for-tQlum at Sveinn konungr var fuU- 
kominn at gQra J)etta raS. Ok snimma um varit sgndi 
Sveinn konungr mgnn austr til SvT-JjjoSar a fund Olafs 
konungs SvTa-konungs, mags sins, ok EirTks jarls; ok let sggja 
|)eim at Olafr, Noregs konungr, hafdi leidangr uti, ok aetlaSi 
at fara um sumarit til Vind-lands. Fylgdi J)at or5-sgnding 
Dana-konungs, at ]Deir SvTakonungr ok Eirikr jarl skyldi 
hgr uti hafa, ok fara til mots vi5 Svein konung, skyldu 
|)eir Jja allir samt Igggja til orrostu vi8 Olaf konung Tryggva- 
son. En Olafr SvTakonungr ok Eirikr jarl varu |)essar 
fgrSar al-bunir, ok drogu Jja saman skipa-hgr mikinn af Svia- 
vgldi, fQru J)vi li8i su8r til Dan-markar ok kvamu J)ar sva, 
at Olafr konungr Tryggvason hafSi a8r austr siglt. P>eir 
SvTakonungr ok Eirikr jarl heldu til fundar vi8 Danakonung, 
ok hQfSu }3a allir saman u-grynni hgrs. 

Sveinn konungr, Jja er hann hafdi sgnt gptir hgrinum, 
|)a sgndi hann Sigvalda jarl til Vindlands at njosna um fgrd 
Olafs konungs Tryggvasonar, ok gildra sva til, at fundr 
J)eira Sveins konungs maetti verSa. Fgrr J)a Sigvaldi jarl 
lei8 sTna, ok kom fram a Vindlandi, for til Jomsborgar, ok 


74 An Icelandic Primer 

sTdan a fund Olafs konungs Tryggvasonar. Varu J)ar mikil 
vinattu-mal Jjeira a meSal, kom jarl ser T hinn mesta kaerleik 
vi5 Olaf konung. AstrlSr kona jarls, dottir Burizleifs konungs, 
var vinr mikill Olafs konungs, ok var J)at mJQk af hinum 
fyrrum tgngSum, er Olafr konungr hafSi att Geiru, systur 
hgnnar. Sigvaldi jarl var maSr vitr ok raSugr; en er hann 
kom ser T ra3a-ggr8 vi8 Olaf konung, J)a dval3i hann mJQk 
fgrSina bans austan at sigla, ok fann til }3ess mJQk ymsa hluti. 
En 115 Olafs konungs let gey si ilia, ok varu mgnn mJQk 
heim-fusir, er J)eir lagu albunir, en ve3r byr-vaen. Sigvaldi 
jarl fekk njosn leyniliga af DanmQrk, at J)a var austan kominn 
hgrr SvTakonungs, ok Eirikr jarl haf3i J)a ok buinn sinn hgr, 
ok })eir h^fdingjarnir mundu }3a koma austr undir Vindland, 
ok Jjeir h^fdu a kvedit, at J)eir mundu bl3a Olafs konungs 
vi5 ey |)a er SvQl5r heitir, sva ]3at, at jarl skyldi sva til stilla 
at J)eir maetti J)ar finna Olaf konung. 

E>a kom pati nakkvarr til Vindlands, at Sveinn Dana- 
konungr hgfSi hgr uti, ok gQrSisk bratt sa kurr, at Sveinn 
Danakonungr mundi vilja finna Olaf konung. En Sigvaldi 
jarl sggir konungi: 'ekki er J)at ra5 Sveins konungs at 
Igggja til bardaga vi5 J)ik me3 Dana-hgr einn saman, sva 
mikinn hgr sem Jser hafi3. En ef y3r er nakkvarr grunr a 
J)vT, at u-fri3r muni fyrir, J)a skal ek fylgja y5r me5 minu 
liSi, ok |)otti J)at styrkr vera fyrr, hvar sem Joms-vTkingar 
fylgdu hQfdingjum; mun ek fa Jier ellifu skip vel skipud.' 
Konungr jatti J)essu. Var J)a litit veSr ok hag-stoett; let 
konungr J)a leysa flotann, ok blasa til brott-lggu. Drogu 
mgnn Jja segl sin, ok gengu meira sma-skipin qU, ok sigldu 
]3au undan a haf ut. En jarl sigldi naer konungs-skipinu, 
ok kallaSi til J)eira, bad konung sigla gptir ser: 'mer er 
kunnast,' sggir hann, 'hvar djupast er um eyja-sundin, en 
J)er munu6 |)ess |)urfa me6 Jjau in storu skipin.' Sigldi 
J)a jarl fyrir me6 sTnum skipum. Hann hafdi ellifu skip, 
en konungr sigldi gptir honum me5 sinum stor-skipum, 
hafdi hann J)ar ok ellifu skip, en allr annarr hgrrinn sigldi 
ut a hafit. En er Sigvaldi jarl sigldi utan at SvQlSr, J)a 
rori a moti Jjeim skuta ein. P>eir sggja jarli at hgrr Dana- 
konungs la |)ar T h^fninni fyrir J)eim. P>a let jarl hlaSa 


seglunum, ok roa J)eir inn undir eyna. 

Sveinn Danakonungr ok Olafr SvTakonungr ok EirTkr 
jarl varu J)ar J)a meS allan hgr sinn; J)a var fagrt ve6r 
ok bjart sol-skin. Gengu Jieir nu upp a holminn allir 
hgfSingjar me6 miklar sveitir manna, ok sa er skipin sigldu 
ut a hafit mJQk mgrg saman. Ok nu sja J)eir hvar siglir 
eitt mikit skip ok glsesiligt; |)a maeltu baSir konungarnir: 
'J)etta er mikit skip ok akafliga fagrt, Jjetta mun vera Ormrinn 
langi.' Eirikr jarl svarar ok sggir: 'ekki er Jjetta Ormr hinn 
langi.' Ok sva var sem hann sagSi; Jjetta skip atti Eindridi 
af Gimsum. Litlu sT3ar sa J)eir hvar annat skip sigldi miklu 
meira en hit fyrra. Pa maelti Sveinn konungr: 'hraeddr er 
Olafr Tryggvason nu, eigi |)orir hann at sigla me3 h^fudin 
a skipi sTnu.' P>a sggir Eirikr jarl: 'ekki er Jietta konungs 
skip, kgnni ek Jjetta skip ok seglit, J)vi at stafat er seglit, |)at 
a Erlingr Skjalgsson; latum sigla Jja, bgtra er oss skar3 ok 
missa T flota Olafs konungs en Jjetta skip Jjar sva buit.' En 
stundu siSar sa |3eir ok kgndu skip Sigvalda jarls, ok viku 
J)an Jjannig at holmanum. P>a sa Jjeir hvar sigldu J)rju skip, 
ok var eitt mikit skip. Maelti J)a Sveinn konungr, bidr Jia 
ganga til skipa sinna, sggir at |)ar fgrr Ormrinn langi. EirTkr 
jarl maelti: 'm^rg hafa Jjeir Qnnur stor skip ok glaesilig en 
Orm hinn langa, bldum gnn.' P>a maeltu mJQk margir mgnn: 
'eigi vill Eirikr jarl nu bgrjask, ok hgfna f^dur sins; Jsetta 
er skQmm mikil, sva at spyrjask mun um qU iQnd, ef ver 
liggjum her meS jafn-miklu li8i, en Olafr konungr sigli a 
hafit ut her hja oss sjalfum.' En er |)eir h^fSu Jaetta talat 
um hrl8, |)a sa |)eir hvar sigldu fjogur skip, ok eitt af 
|)eim var drgki all-mikill ok mJQk guU-buinn. P>a sto8 upp 
Sveinn konungr, ok maelti: 'hatt mun Ormrinn bera mik T 
kveld, honum skal ek styra.' P>a maeltu margir, at Ormrinn 
var furSu mikit skip ok frltt, ok rausn mikil at lata gpra 
slTkt skip. P>a maelti EirTkr jarl, sva at nakkvarir mgnn 
heyrdu: 'J)ott Olafr konungr hgfdi ekki meira skip en Jjetta, 
|)a mundi Sveinn konungr J)at aldri fa af honum me5 einn 
saman Danahgr.' Dreif J)a folkit til skipanna, ok raku af 
tJQldin, ok aetluSu at buask skjotliga. En er hgfSingjar roeddu 
J)etta milli sin, sem nu er sagt, Jja sa |)eir, hvar sigldu |)rju 

76 An Icelandic Primer 

skip all-mikil, ok fjorda sidast, ok var J)at Ormrinn langi. 

En J)au hin storu skip, er aSr h^fdu siglt, ok J)eir hugdu 

at Ormrinn vaeri, })at var hit fyrra Traninn, en hit sTdara 
105 Ormrinn skammi. En Jsa er Jieir sa Orminn langa, kgndu 

allir, ok maelti J)a engi T mot, at Jjar mundi sigla Olafr 

Tryggvason; gengu J)a til skipanna, ok skipuSu til at- 

iQgunnar. Varu J)at einkamal |)eira h^fSingja, S veins konungs, 

Olafs konungs, Eirlks jarls, at sinn |)ri5jung Noregs skyldi 
no eignask hvgrr J)eira, ef Jjeir fgldi Olaf konung Tryggvason; 

en sa |)eira h^fdingja er fyrst gengi a Orminn, skyldi eignask 

alt |)at hlut-skipti er J)ar fengisk, ok hvgrr Jjeira J)au skip 

er sjalfr hrySi. Eirlkr jarl hafSi barSa einn geysi mikinn, 

er hann var vanr at hafa T viking; Jjar var skggg a of an- 
us verdu bardinu hvarutvgggja, en nidr fra jarn-spQng J)ykk ok 

sva breiS sem barSit, ok tok alt i sae ofan. 

P>a er J)eir Sigvaldi jarl roru inn undir holminn, |)a sa 

J)at Jjeir P>orkgll dySrill af Trananum ok aSrir skip-stjorn- 

ar-mgnn, J)eir er meS honum foru, at jarl snori skipum 
120 undir holmann; J)a hloSu Jjeir ok seglum, ok roru gptir 

honum, ok k^Uudu til J)eira, spurSu, hvT J)eir foru sva. Jarl 

sggir, at hann vill bida Olafs konungs: 'ok er meiri van at 

ufri3r se fyrir oss.' Letu |)eir J)a fljota skipin, J)ar til er 

Porkgll ngfja kom me3 Orminn skamma, ok J)au jirju skip 
125 er honum fylgdu. Ok varu Jjeim SQg3 hin SQmu tidindi; 

hlodu |)eir J)a ok sinum seglum, ok letu fljota, ok bi5u 

Olafs konungs. En |)a er konungrinn sigldi innan at hol- 

manum, J)a rori allr hgrrinn ut a sundit fyrir |)a. En er 

|)eir sa J)at, Jja ba5u Jjeir konunginn sigla leiS sTna, en 
130 Igggja eigi til orrostu vi5 sva mikinn hgr. Konungr svarar 

hatt, ok sto5 upp i lyptingunni: 'lati ofan seglit, ekki skulu 

mlnir mgnn hyggja a flotta, ek hgfi aldri flyit T orrostu, raSi 

Gu5 fyrir iTfi mlnu, en aldri mun ek a flotta Igggja.' Var sva 

gQrt sem konungr maelti. 
135 Olafr konungr let blasa til sam-lQgu Qllum skipum sTnum. 

Var konungs skip I midju lidi, en J)ar a annat bord Ormrinn 

skammi, en a annat borS Traninn. En J)a er Jjeir toku 

at tgngja stafna a Orminum langa ok Orminum skamma, 

ok er konungr sa }3at, kallaSi hann hatt, bad Jja Igggja 


140 fram bgtr hit mikla skipit, ok lata Jiat eigi aptast vera allra 
skipa T hgrinum. P>a svarar Ulfr hinn raudi: 'ef Orminn 
skal JjvT Igngra fram Igggja, sem hann er Igngri en Qnnur 
skip, J)a mun a-vint verda um SQxin T dag.' Konungr sggir: 
'eigi vissa ek at ek aetta stafnbuann baeSi rauSan ok ragan.' 

145 Ulfr mselti: 'vgr J)u eigi meir baki lyptingina en ek mun 
stafninn.' Konungr belt a boga, ok lagSi gr a string, ok 
snori at Ulfi. Ulfr maelti: 'skjot annan veg, konungr I |)annig 
sem meiri er J)Qrfin; J)er vinn ek J)at er ek vinn.' 

Olafr konungr sto5 1 lyptingu a Orminum, bar hann hatt 

150 mJQk; hann hafdi gyltan skJQld ok gull-ro5inn hjalm; var 
hann au5-kgndr fra Qdrum m^nnum: hann hafSi raudan 
kyrtil stuttan utan yfir brynju. En er Olafr konungr sa at 
ridludusk flotarnir, ok upp varu sgtt mgrki fyrir h^fdingjum, 
|)a spyrr hann: 'hvgrr er h^fSingi fyrir liSi J)vi er gggnt 

155 OSS er?' Honum var sagt at J)ar var Sveinn konungr 

tjuguskggg me6 Danahgr. Konungr svarar: 'ekki hraeSumk 
ver bleySur |)3er, engi er hugr i D^num. En hvgrr h^fSingi 
fylgir Jjeim mgrkjum er Jjar eru ut ifra a hoegra veg?' Honum 
var sagt at J)ar var Olafr konungr me5 SvTa-hgr. Olafr 

160 konungr sggir: 'bgtra vaeri SvTum heima at sleikja um blot- 
boUa sTna en ganga a Orminn undir vapn ydur. En hvgrir 
eigu Jjau hin storu skip, er Jiar liggja ut a bak-bor5a D^num?' 
'Par er,' sggja Jseir 'Eirlkr jarl Hakonar-son.' P>a svaradi 
Olafr konungr: 'hann mun Jjykkjask eiga vi5 oss skapligan 

165 fund, ok OSS er van snarpligrar orrostu af |)vl lidi; J)eir eru 
Nor8-mgnn, sem ver erum.' 

SlSan greiSa konungar at-ro5r. LagSi Sveinn konungr 
sitt skip moti Orminum langa, en Olafr konungr Soenski 
lagSi ut fra, ok stakk stQfnum at yzta skipi Olafs konungs 

170 Tryggvasonar, en Qdrum megin Eirikr jarl. Toksk |)ar |)a 
hgrS orrosta. Sigvaldi jarl let skotta vi6 sTn skip, ok lagSi 
ekki til orrostu. 

Pessi orrosta var hin snarpasta ok all-mann-skoe5. Fram- 
byggjar a Orminum langa ok Orminum skamma ok Trananum 

175 foerSu akkeri ok stafn-lja I skip S veins konungs, en attu 
vapnin at bera niSr undir foetr ser; hruSu J)eir qU Jjau skip 
er J)eir fengu haldit. En konungrinn Sveinn ok J)at 115 er 

78 An Icelandic Primer 

undan komsk fly^i ^ Qnnur skip, ok J)ar nsest lQg3u J)eir 
fra or skot-mali. Ok for |)essi hgrr sva sem gat Olafr 
konungr Tryggvason. P>a lagSi J)ar at T staSinn Olafr 
SvTakonungr; ok Jiegar er Jjeir koma naer storskipum, }3a 
for J)eim sem hinum, at J)eir letu 115 mlklt ok sum skip sin, 
ok iQgSu fra vl6 sva bult. En Elrikr jarl sT-byr51 BarSanum 
vl8 hit yzta skip Olafs konungs, ok hrau8 hann J)at, ok hjo 
J)egar |)at or tgngslum, en lagSl |)a at |)vT, er Jjar var nsest, 
ok barSlsk til J)ess er J)at var hro81t. Tok J)a 1181t at hlaupa 
af hlnum smaerum sklpunum, ok upp a storsklpln. En Elrikr 
jarl hjo hvgrt or tgngslunum, sva sem hroSlt var. En Danlr 
ok SvTar l9g3u |)a T skotmal ok gllum megln at sklpum Olafs 
konungs, en Elrikr jarl la avalt sibyrt vl3 sklpln, ok attl 
hQgg-orrostu. En sva sem mgnn fellu a sklpum hans, ^a 
gengu a5rlr upp T staSlnn, Sviar ok Danlr. P>a var orrosta 
hln snarpasta, ok fell J)a mJQk llSlt, ok kom sva at lykSum, 
at q11 varu hroSln skip Olafs konungs Tryggvasonar nema 
Ormrlnn langl; var Jjar J)a alt 115 a komlt, J)at er vigt var 
hans manna. P>a lagSl Elrikr jarl BarSanum at Ormlnum 
langa sibyrt, ok var J)ar hQggorrosta. 

Elrlikr jarl var I fyrlr-ruml a sklpl sTnu, ok var J)ar fylkt 
me5 skjald-borg. Var J)a baedl h^ggorrosta, ok spjotum laglt, 
ok kastat qUu J)vI er til vapna var, en sumlr skutu boga-skotl 
e6a hand-skotl. Var Jja sva mlklU vapnaburdr a Ormlnn, at 
varla mattl hlifum vl6 koma, er sva Jjykt flugu spjot ok Qrvar; 
J)vT at Qllum megln lQg8u hgrsklp at Ormlnum. En mgnn 
Olafs konungs varu |)a sva o61r, at Jjelr hljopu upp a borSln, 
til |)ess at na me8 sverSs-hQggum at drepa folklt. En marglr 
iQgSu elgl sva undlr Ormlnn, at J)elr vlldl T hQggorrostu vera. 
En Olafs mgnn gengu flestlr ut af borSunum, ok gaSu elgl 
annars en |)elr bgrdlsk a slettum vgUl, ok sukku nl5r me5 
vapnum sTnum. 

Elnarr jjambar-skglfir var a Ormlnum aptr T krappa-ruml; 
hann skaut af boga, ok var allra manna hard-skeytastr. 
Elnarr skaut at Elrikl jarll, ok laust T styrls-hnakkann fyrlr 
ofan hQfuS jarll, ok gekk alt upp a reyr-b^ndln. Jarl lelt til, 
ok spurSl ef |)elr vlssl, hvgrr skaut. En jafn-skjott kom 
Qnnur Qr sva naer jarll, at flaug mllll slSunna ok handarlnnar. 


ok sva aptr I hQfda-fJQlina, at langt sto6 ut broddrinn. P>a 
maelti jarl vi5 mann |)ann er sumir ngfna Finn, en sumir 
sggja at hann vaeri Finskr, sa var hinn mesti bog-ma5r: 
'skjot-tu mann J)ann hinn mikla I krapparuminu ! ' Finnr 

220 skaut, ok kom Qrin a boga Einars miSjan, I J)vl bili er Einarr 
dro it J)ri5ja sinn bogann. Brast |)a boginn I tva hluti. P>a 
maelti Olafr konungr: 'hvat brast |)ar sva hatt?' Einarr 
svarar: 'Noregr or hgndi |3er, konungr!' 'Eigi mun sva 
mikill brestr at orSinn,' sggir konungr, 'tak boga minn, ok 

225 skjot af,' ok kastaSi boganum til bans. Einarr tok bogann, 
ok dro Jjegar fyrir odd grvarinnar, ok maelti: 'ofveikr, 
ofveikr allvalds boginn!' ok kastaSi aptr boganum; tok J)a 
skJQld sinn ok sverd, ok barSisk. 

Olafr konungr Tryggvason sto5 T lypting a Orminum, ok 

230 skaut optast um daginn, stundum bogaskoti, en stundum 
gaflQkum, ok jafnan tveim sgnn. Hann sa fram a skipit, ok 
sa sTna mgnn reiSa sverSin ok hQggva tltt, ok sa at ilia bitu; 
maelti Jja hatt: 'hvart reiSi J)er sva slaeliga sverSin, er ek se 
at ekki bita ySr?' MaSr svarar: 'sverS var eru slae ok 

235 brotin mJQk.' P>a gekk konungr of an T fyrirrumit ok lauk 
upp hasaetis-kistuna, tok |)ar or mgrg sverS hvQss, ok fekk 
mQnnum. En er hann tok ni3r hinni hoegri hgndi, |)a sa 
mgnn at blo3 rann ofan undan bryn-stukunni; en engi vissi 
hvar hann var sarr. 

240 Mest var VQrnin a Orminum ok mannskoeSust af fyrirrums- 

mQnnum ok stafnbuum; J)ar var hvarttvgggja, valit mest 
mann-folkit ok haest borSin. En 113 fell fyrst um mitt skipit. 
Ok J)a er fatt sto3 manna upp um siglu-skeiS, |)a re3 Eirikr 
jarl til upp-gQngunnar, ok kom upp a Orminn vi5 fimtanda 

245 mann. P>a kom i mot honum Hyrningr, magr Olafs konungs, 
me3 sveit manna, ok var5 J)ar inn harSasti bardagi, ok lauk 
sva, at jarl hr^kk ofan aptr a Bardann; en |)eir mgnn er 
honum h^fdu fylgt fellu sumir, en sumir varu saerSir. Par 
var5 gnn in snarpasta orrosta, ok fellu |)a margir mgnn a 

250 Orminum. En er Jjyntisk skipan a Orminum til varnarinnar, 
]3a red Eirikr jarl annat sinn til uppgQngu a Orminn. Var6 
J)a gnn h^rS vi5-taka. En er |)etta sa stafnbuar a Orminum, 
J)a gengu |)eir aptr a skipit, ok snuask til varnar moti jarli, ok 

80 An Icelandic Primer 

veita harda vidtQku. En fyrir JjvT at J)a var sva mJQk fallit 
255 lis a Orminum, at vT8a varu au8 borSin, toku |)a jarls mgnn 

vT8a upp at ganga. En alt }3at 118 er J)a sto8 upp til varnar 

a Orminum sotti aptr a skipit, Jiar sem konungr var. 
KolbJQrn stallari gekk upp T lypting til konungs; J)eir 

JiQfSu mJQk likan klae8a-buna3 ok vapna, KolbJQrn var ok 
260 allra manna mestr ok frlSastr. Var8 nu gnn T fyrirruminu 

in snarpasta orrosta. En fyrir }3a SQk at Jja var sva mikit 

folk komit upp a Orminn af 1181 jarls sem vera matti a skipinu, 

en skip bans lQg8u at Qllum megin utan at Orminum, en 

lltit fJQl-mgnni til varnar moti sva miklum hgr, nu J)ott J)eir 
265 mgnn vseri bseSi stgrkir ok froeknir, |)a fellu nu flestir a iTtilli 

stundu. En Olafr konungr sjalfr ok |)eir KolbJQrn baSir 

hljopu Jja fyrir bor8, ok a sitt bor8 hvarr. En jarls mgnn 

h^fSu lagt utan at sma-skutur, ok drapu J)a er a kaf hljopu. 

Ok J)a er konungr sjalfr hafSi a kaf hlaupit, vildu J)eir taka 
270 hann h^ndum, ok foera Eiriki jarli. En Olafr konungr bra 

yfir sik skildinum, ok steypSisk T kaf; en KolbJQrn stallari 

skaut undir sik skildinum, ok hlifSi ser sva vi5 vapnum er 

lagt var af skipum J)eim er undir lagu, ok fell hann sva 

a saeinn at skJQldrinn var8 undir honum, ok komsk hann J)vT 
275 eigi T kaf sva skjott, ok var8 hann hand-tgkinn ok drgginn 

upp T skutuna, ok hugdu Jieir at Jiar vaeri konungrinn. Var 

hann }3a leiddr fyrir jarl. En er J)ess var5 jarl varr at J)ar 

var KolbJQrn, en eigi Olafr konungr, |)a varu Kolbirni grid 

gefin. En T |)essi svipan hljopu allir fyrir borS af Orminum, 
280 |)eir er |)a varu a lifi, Olafs konungs mgnn; ok sggir Hall- 

freSr vandrseSa-skald, at PorkgU ngfja, konungs broSir, hljop 

slSast allra manna fyrir borS. 

Sva var fyrr ritat, at Sigvaldi jarl kom til f^runeytis vi5 

Olaf konung T Vindlandi, ok hafdi tlu skip, en |)at hit ellifta, 
285 er a varu mgnn AstrlSar konungs-dottur, konu jarls. En 

J)a er Olafr konungr hafdi fyrir borS hlaupit, |)a oep6i 

hgrrinn allr sigr-op, ok Jja lustu Jjeir arum T sse Sigvaldi 

jarl ok hans mgnn, ok roru til bardaga. En su Vinda- 

sngkkjan, er AstriSar mgnn varu a, rori brott ok aptr undir 
290 Vindland; ok var Jjat margra manna mal |)egar, at Olafr 

konungr mundi hafa steypt af ser brynjunni T kafi, ok kafat 


sva ut undan langskipunum, lagizk slSan til Vindasngkkj- 
unnar, ok hgfdi mgnn Astrldar flutt hann til lands. Ok 
eru J)ar margar fra-sagnir um fgrdir Olafs konungs gQrvar 
sTdan af sumum mQnnum. En hvgrn veg sem Jiat hgfir 
verit, ]3a kom Olafr konungr Tryggvason aldri sidan til rikis 
1 Noregi. 

Chapter 12 


Ma5r het Au5un, Vest-firzkr at kyni ok fe-lTtill; hann for 
utan vestr J)ar i fJQrSum me6 um-ra5i P>orsteins bonda go5s, 
ok Poris styri-manns, er J)ar hafSi J)egit vist of vetrinn me5 
Porsteini. AuSun var ok }3ar, ok starfaSi fyrir honum Pori, 
ok |3a }3essi laun af honum — utan-fgrSina ok bans um-sja. 
Hann AuSun lagSi mestan hluta fjar J)ess er var fyrir moSur 
sTna, a5r hann stigi a skip, ok var kveSit a J)riggja vetra 
bJQrg. Ok nu fara Jseir utan hedan, ok fgrsk Jseim vel, ok 
var Audun of vetrinn gptir me5 P>ori styrimanni; hann atti 
bu a Moeri. Ok um sumarit gptir fara Jjeir ut til Groen-lands, 
ok eru J)ar of vetrinn. P>ess er vi5 getit at Audun kaupir 
|)ar bjarn-dyri eitt, gQrsimi mikla, ok gaf Jiar fyrir alia 
eigu sTna. Ok nu of sumarit gptir ^a fara J)eir aptr til 
Noregs, ok verSa vel reiS-fara; hgfir Au6un dyr sitt me6 
ser, ok aetlar nu at fara su5r til Danmgrkr a fund Sveins 
konungs, ok gefa honum dyrit. Ok er hann kom su5r T 
landit, J)ar sem konungr var fyrir, |)a ggngr hann upp af 
skipi, ok leiSir gptir ser dyrit, ok leigir ser hgr-bgrgi. Haraldi 
konungi var sagt bratt at |)ar var komit bjarndyri, gQrsimi 
mikil, 'ok a Is-lgnzkr madr.' Konungr sgndir Jjegar mgnn 
gptir honum, ok er Audun kom fyrir konung, kvgdr hann 
konung vel; konungr tok vel kvgdju hans, ok spurdi sidan: 
'attu gQrsimi mikla T bjarndyri?' Hann svarar, ok kvezk 
eiga dyrit eitthvgrt. Konungr mselti: 'villtu sglja oss dyrit 
vi3 slTku ver3i sem |)u keyptir?' Hann svarar: 'eigi vil ek 


84 An Icelandic Primer 

J)at, herra!' 'Villtu |)a,' sggir konungr, 'at ek gefa Jjer tvau 

ver6 slTk, ok mun |)at rettara, ef |)u hgfir J)ar vi5 gefit alia 

J)Tna eigu.' 'Eigi vil ek Jiat, herra!' sggir hann. Konungr 

maelti: 'villtu gefa mer J)a?' Hann svarar: 'eigi, herra!' 
30 Konungr maelti: 'hvat villtu J)a af gQra?' Hann svarar: 

'fara,' sggir hann, 'til Danmgrkr, ok gefa Sveini konungi.' 

Haraldr konungr sggir: 'hvart er, at Jju ert maSr sva uvitr 

at |)u hgfir eigi heyrt ufriS J)ann er T milli er landa J)essa, 

eSa setlar Jju giptu J)Tna sva mikla, at Jju munir J)ar komask 
35 me5 gQrsimar, er adrir fa eigi komizk klakk-laust, Jjo at 

nau8-syn eigi til?' Au8un svarar: 'herra! J)at er a y8ru 

valdi, en engu jatum ver Q8ru en |)essu er ver h^fum a8r 

aetlat.' P>a maelti konungr: 'hvT mun eigi }3at til, at Jju farir 

lei8 J)Tna, sem J)u vill, ok kom Jja til mm, er Jju fgrr aptr, 
40 ok sgg mer, hvgrsu Sveinn konungr launar J)er dyrit, ok 

kann |)at vera, at J)u ser gaefu-ma8r.' 'P>vT heit ek J)er,' 

sag8i Au8un. 

Hann fgrr nu si8an su6r me8 landi, ok I Vik austr, ok |)a 

til Danmgrkr; ok er Jja uppi hvgrr pgnningr fjarins, ok ver8r 
45 hann J)a bidja matar baedi fyrir sik ok fyrir dyrit. Hann 

komr a fund ar-manns Sveins konungs, |)ess er Aki het, 

ok ba8 hann vista nakkvarra bseSi fyrir sik ok fyrir dyrit: 

'ek aetla,' sggir hann, 'at gefa Sveini konungi dyrit.' Aki 

lezk sglja mundu honum vistir, ef hann vildi. Au6un kvezk 
50 ekki til hafa fyrir at gefa; 'en ek vilda Jjo,' sggir hann, 'at 

J)etta kvaemisk til lei3ar at ek maetta dyrit foera konungi.' 

'Ek mun fa J)er vistir, sem it J3urfi5 til konungs fundar; 

en }3ar T moti vil ek eiga halft dyrit, ok mattu a |)at iTta, 

at dyrit mun deyja fyrir J)er, Jjars it JjurfuS vistir miklar, en 
55 fe se farit, ok er buit vi5 at J)u hafir J)a ekki dyrsins.' Ok 

er hann lltr a Jjetta, synisk honum nakkvat gptir sem 

armadrinn maelti fyrir honum, ok saettask Jieir a Jietta, at 

hann sglr Aka halft dyrit, ok skal konungr sidan meta alt 

saman. Skulu Jjeir fara baSir nu a fund konungs; ok sva 
60 gQra }3eir: fara nu badir a fund konungs, ok stoSu fyrir 

borSinu. Konungr ihugaSi, hvgrr J)essi maSr myndi vera, 

er hann kgndi eigi, ok maelti slSan til AuSunar: 'hvgrr 

er-tu?' sggir hann. Hann svarar: 'ek em Islgnzkr maSr, 


herra,' sggir hann, 'ok kominn nu utan af Groenlandi, ok nu 
af Noregi, ok aetla5a-k at foera y5r bjarndyri Jjetta; keypta-k 
|)at me5 allri eigu minni, ok nu er Jjo a orSit mikit fyrir 
mer; ek a nu halft eitt dyrit,' ok sggir konungi sTdan, hvgrsu 
farit hafSi me6 |)eim Aka armanni bans. Konungr maelti: 
'er J)at satt, Aki, er hann sggir?' 'Satt er J)at,' sggir hann. 
Konungr maelti: 'ok |)otti |)er J)at til liggja, J)ar sem ek 
sgtta-k J)ik mikinn mann, at hgpta J)at eSa talma er maSr 
gQrSisk til at foera mer gQrsimi, ok gaf fyrir alia eign, ok 
sa |)at Haraldr konungr at ra6i at lata hann fara T fridi, ok er 
hann varr uvinr? Hygg }3U at J)a, hve sannligt |)at var Jiinnar 
handar, ok Jjat vseri makligt, at |)u vaerir drepinn; en ek 
mun nu eigi J)at gQra, en braut skaltu fara jjegar or landinu, 
ok koma aldri aptr sTdan mer T aug-syn ! En Jjer, Audun ! 
kann ek sllka J^Qkk, sem J)u gefir mer alt dyrit, ok ver her 
me8 mer.' Pat |)gkkisk hann, ok er meS Sveini konungi 
um hrlS. 

Ok er liSu nakkvarir stundir, }3a maelti Audun vi5 konung: 
'braut fysir mik nu, herra!' Konungr svarar hgldr seint: 
'hvat villtu |)a,' sggir hann, 'ef J)u vill eigi me6 oss vera?' 
Hann sggir: 'su5r vil ek ganga.' 'Ef J)u vildir eigi sva gott 
raS taka,' sggir konungr, 'J)a myndi mer fyrir |)ykkja T, er |)u 
fysisk T braut' ; ok nu gaf konungr honum silfr mJQk mikit, 
ok for hann su5r sTdan me5 Rum-fgrlum, ok skipadi konungr 
til um fgrS hans, bad hann koma til sin, er kvaemi aptr. 
Nu for hann fgrSar sinnar, unz hann komr su3r T Roma-borg. 
Ok er hann hgfir J)ar dvalizk, sem hann tlSir, ^a fgrr hann 
aptr; tgkr Jja sott mikla, gQrir hann Jja akafliga magran; 
ggngr Jja upp alt feit Jjat, er konungr hafSi gefit honum 
til fgrSarinnar; tgkr siSan upp staf-karls stig, ok biSr ser 
matar. Hann er |)a koUottr ok hgldr u-saelligr; hann komr 
aptr T Danmork at paskum, Jjangat sem konungr er J)a 
staddr; en ei }3or5i hann at lata sja sik; ok var T kirkju- 
skoti, ok setladi Jja til fundar vi5 konung, er hann gengi 
til kirkju um kveldit; ok nu er hann sa konunginn ok 
hirSina fagrliga buna, J)a J)or5i hann eigi at lata sja sik. 
Ok er konungr gekk til drykkju T h^Uina, Jja mataSisk AuSun 
uti, sem si3r er til Rumfgrla, me5an J)eir hafa eigi kastat staf 

86 An Icelandic Primer 

ok skreppu. Ok nu of aptaninn, er konungr gekk til kveld- 

SQngs, aetladi Audun at hitta hann, ok sva mikit sem honum 

|)otti fyrr fyrir, jok nu miklu a, er J)eir varu druknir 
105 hirdmgnninir; ok er J)eir gengu inn aptr, Jsa Jjgkdi konungr 

mann, ok JDOttisk finna at eigi hafSi frama til at ganga fram 

at hitta hann. Ok nu er hirSin gekk inn, |)a veik konungr 

ut, ok mselti: 'gangi sa nu fram, er mik vill finna; mik 

grunar at sa muni vera maSrinn.' P>a gekk AuSun fram, 
no ok fell til fota konungi, ok varla kgndi konungr hann; ok 

Jjegar er konungr veit, hvgrr hann er, tok konungr T h^nd 

honum Auduni, ok bad hann vel kominn, 'ok hgfir J)u mikit 

skipazk,' segir hann, 'siSan vit samk'; leiSir hann gptir ser 

inn, ok er hirdin sa hann, hlogu Jjeir at honum; en konungr 
115 sagdi: 'eigi J)urfu Jjer at honum at hlaeja, JjvTat bgtr hgfir 

hann set fyr sinni sal hgldr en er.' P>a let konungr gQra 

honum laug, ok gaf honum siSan hlaedi, ok er hann nu me6 

honum. P>at er nu sagt einhvgrju sinni of varit at konungr 

bySr AuSuni at vera me6 ser a-lgng5ar, ok kvezk myndu 
120 gQra hann skutil-svein sinn, ok Igggja til hans go5a virSing. 

Audun sggir: 'Gu5 J)akki y5r, herra! soma J)ann allan er 

J)er vilid til mm Igggja; en hitt er mer T skapi at fara ut 

til Islands.' Konungr sggir: 'J)etta synisk mer undarliga 

kosit.' Audun mselti: 'eigi ma ek J)at vita, herra!' sggir 
125 hann, 'at ek hafa her mikinn soma me5 y5r, en modir mm 

tro6i stafkarls stig ut a Islandi; J)vl at nu er lokit bJQrg Ipeih 

er ek lagSa til, a6r ek foera af Islandi.' Konungr svarar: 

'vel er maelt,' sggir hann, 'ok mannliga, ok muntu ver8a 

giptu-ma8r; J)essi einn var sva hlutrinn, at mer myndi eigi 
130 mis-lTka at J)u foerir i braut he6an; ok ver nu me8 mer Jjar til 

er skip buask.' Hann gOrir sva. 

Einn dag, er a lei6 varit, gekk Sveinn konungr ofan a 

bryggjur, ok varu mgnn |)a at, at bua skip til ymissa landa, 

T austr-veg e8a Sax-land, til SvTjjjodar e8a Noregs. P>a koma 
135 t)eir Au8un at einu skipi fQgru, ok varu mgnn at, at bua 

skipit. P>a spurdi konungr: 'hvgrsu iTzk J)er, Au8un! a 

J)etta skip?' Hann svarar: 'vel, herra!' Konungr mselti: 

'J)etta skip vil ek |)er gefa, ok launa bjarndyrit.' Hann 

J)akka8i gJQfina gptir sinni kunnustu; ok er leiS stund, ok 


140 skipit var albuit, J)a maelti Sveinn konungr vi5 Audun: 'J)o 
villtu nu a braut, J)a mun ek nu ekki Igtja Jiik, en J)at hgfi ek 
spurt, at ilt er til hafna fyrir landi ydru, ok eru vT5a oraefi ok 
haett skipum; nu brytr Jju, ok tynir skipinu ok fenu; litt ser 
|)at J)a a, at |3U hafir fundit Svein konung, ok gefit honum 

145 gQrsimi.' SiSan sgldi konungr honum leSr-hosu fuUa af 
silfri, 'ok ertu |)a gnn eigi fe-lauss meS qUu, Jjott }3U brjotir 
skipit, ef J)u faer haldit J)essu. VerSa ma sva gnn,' sggir 
konungr, 'at J)u tynir Jjessu fe; litt nytr Jju Jja Jjess, er J)u 
fannt Svein konung, ok gaft honum gQrsimi.' Sidan dro 

150 konungr bring af hgndi ser, ok gaf Auduni, ok maelti: 'J)o 
at sva ilia verSi, at J)u brjotir skipit ok tynir fenu, eigi 
ertu felauss, ef |)u komsk a land, }3vT at margir mgnn hafa 
gull a ser T skips-brotum, ok ser Jja at Jju hgfir fundit Svein 
konung, ef J)u hgldr hringinum; en J)at vil ek raSa Jjer,' 

155 sggir hann, 'at Jju gefir eigi hringinn, nema J)u |)ykkisk eiga 
sva mikit gott at launa n^kkurum gQfgum manni, J)a gef 
|3eim hringinn, Jjvi at tignum m^nnum somir at J)iggja, ok 
far nu heill ! ' 

SlSan laetr hann T haf, ok komr I Noreg, ok laetr flytja 

160 upp varnad sinn, ok |)urfti nu meira vi5 J)at en fyrr, er 
hann var I Noregi. Hann fgrr nu sTdan a fund Haralds 
konungs, ok vill gfna }3at er hann het honum, aSr hann 
for til Danmgrkr, ok kvgSr konung vel. Haraldr konungr 
tok vel kvgdju bans, ok 'sgzk niSr,' sggir hann, 'ok drekk 

165 her me6 oss' ; ok sva gQrir hann. P>a spurSi Haraldr kon- 
ungr: 'hvgrju launaSi Sveinn konungr J)er dyrit?' AuSun 
svarar: '|)vT, herra! at hann J)a at mer.' Konungr sagSi: 
'launat mynda ek J)er J)vT hafa; hvgrju launaSi hann gnn?' 
AuSun svarar: 'gaf hann mer silfr til su5r-gQngu.' P>a sggir 

170 Haraldr konungr: 'm^rgum m^nnum gefr Sveinn konungr 
silfr til suSrgQngu e5a annarra hluta, J)ott ekki foeri honum 
gQrsimar; hvat er gnn fleira?' 'Hann baud mer,' sggir 
Audun, 'at gorask skutilsveinn bans, ok mikinn soma til 
mm at Igggja.' 'Vel var |)at maelt,' sggir konungr, 'ok 

175 launa, myndi hann gnn fleira.' AuSun sagSi: 'gaf hann mer 
kngrr me3 farmi |)eim er hingat er bgzt varit T Noreg.' 'Pat 
var stor-mannligt,' sggir konungr, 'en launat mynda ek |)er 

88 An Icelandic Primer 

J)vT hafa. Launadi hann J)vT fleira?' Audun svaradi: 'gaf 
hann mer leSrhosu fuUa af silfri, ok kvad mik Jja eigi felausan, 
ef ek helda |)vT, }30 at skip mitt bryti vi5 Island.' Konungr 
sagdi: '|)at var a-gaetliga gQrt, ok Jjat mynda ek ekki gprt 
hafa; lauss mynda ek J)ykkjask, ef ek gaefa J)er skipit; hvart 
launaSi hann fleira?' 'Sva var vTst, herra!' sggir AuSun, 
'at hann launaSi: hann gaf mer hring J)enna er ek hgfi 
a hgndi, ok kvaS sva mega at berask, at ek tynda fenu 
qUu, ok sagSi mik J)a eigi felausan, ef ek setta hringinn, 
ok bad mik eigi loga, nema ek aetta n^kkurum tignum manni 
sva gott at launa, at ek vilda gefa; en nu hgfi ek J)ann 
fundit, |)vT at Jju attir kost at taka hvarttvgggja fra mer, 
dyrit ok sva llf mitt, en J)u lezt mik fara jjangat I fridi, 
sem adrir nadu eigi.' Konungr tok vi5 gJQfinni me5 blTdu, 
ok gaf AuSuni I moti goSar gjafir, a5r en ]3eir skilSisk. 
Audun varSi fenu til Islands-fgrSar ok for ut |)egar um 
sumarit til Islands, ok |)otti vera inn mesti gaefumaSr. 

Chapter 13 

1 . VreiSr var J)a Ving-|)orr, er hann vaknaSi, 
ok sins hamars of saknadi: 

skggg nam at hrista, skgr nam at dyja, 
red Jardar burr um at |)reifask. 

2. Ok hann |)at orda alls fyrst of kvaS: 
'heyr-5u nu, Loki! hvat ek nu mseli, 
er engi veit jardar hvgrgi 

ne upp-himins: ass er stolinn hamri!' 

3. Gengu |)eir fagra Freyju tuna, 
ok hann |)at orda alls fyrst of kvaS: 
'muntu mer, Freyja! fjaSr-hams Ija, 
ef ek minn hamar maetta-k hitta?' 

Freyja kvad: 

4. 'Po munda-k gefa ]Der, J)ott or guUi vaeri, 
ok-|)o sglja at vseri or silfri.' 

5. Flo |)a Loki, fjadrhamr dunSi, 
unz fyr utan kom asa garSa, 

ok fyr innan kom JQtna heima. 

6. Prymr sat a haugi, |)ursa drottinn, 
greyjum sTnum guU-b^nd snori 

ok m^rum sTnum m^n jafnaSi. 

{>rymr kvaS: 


90 An Icelandic Primer 

1 . 'Hvat er me3 asum? hvat er me3 alfum? 
hvT er-tu einn kominn T jQtunheima?' 

25 Loki kva5: 

'lit er me3 asum, ilt er me3 alfum; 
hgfir Jju Hlo-ri3a hamar of folginn?' 

I>rymr kvad: 

8. 'Ek hgfi Hlori3a hamar of folginn 
30 attarQstum fyr JQr3 neSan; 

hann engi maSr aptr of heimtir, 
nema foeri mer Freyju at kvan.' 

9. Flo J)a Loki, fjaSrhamr dunSi, 
unz fyr utan kom JQtna heima 

36 ok fyr innan kom asa garSa; 

moetti hann P>or midra garda, 
ok hann |)at orda alls fyrst of kvaS: 

10. 'Hgfir Jju orindi sem grfiSi? 
sgg-3u a lopti iQng tiSindi: 

40 opt sitjanda SQgur of fallask, 

okliggjandi lygi of bgllir.' 

Loki kvaS: 

11. 'Hgfi-k grfiSi ok orindi: 

I>rymr hgfir |)inn hamar, J)ursa drottinn; 
46 hann engi maSr aptr of heimtir, 

nema honum foeri Freyju at kvan.' 

12. Ganga J)eir fagra Freyju at hitta, 
ok hann J)at orSa alls fyrst of kvaS: 
'bitt-u |)ik, Freyja, bruSar iTni! 

60 vit skulum aka tvau T jQtunheima.' 

13. VreiS var5 Jja Freyja ok fnasadi, 
allr asa salr undir bifSisk, 

stQkk J)at it mikla mgn BrTsinga: 


'mik veizt-u verda ver-gjarnasta, 
ef ek gk me5 Jjer T Jptunheima.' 

14. Sgnn varu aesir allir a |)ingi 
ok asynjur allar a mali, 

ok of Jjat reSu rlkir tivar, 

hve Jjeir Hlorida hamar of soetti. 

15. P>a kvaS Jjat Heimdallr, hvitastr asa 
(vissi hann vel fram, sem vanir aSrir): 
'bindum ver P>or Jja brudar lini, 

hafi hann it mikla mgn BrTsinga! 

16. Latum und honum hrynja lukla 
ok kvenn-vaSir of kne falla, 

en a brjosti breiSa steina, 
ok hagliga of h^fuS typpum ! ' 

17. P>akva5 }3at P>orr, }3ru5ugr ass: 
'mik munu aesir argan kalla, 

ef ek bindask laet brudar iTni.' 

18. P>a kvaS J)at Loki, Laufeyjar sonr: 
'|)ggi |)u [nu], P>orr! J)eira orda; 
J)egar munu JQtnar AsgarS bua, 
nema J)u J)inn hamar |)er of heimtir.' 

19. Bundu Jjeir P>or Jsa brudar iTni 
ok inu mikla mgni BrTsinga. 

20. Letu und honum hrynja lukla 
ok kvenn-vaSir of kne falla, 

en a brjosti breida steina, 
ok hagliga of h^fud typdu. 

21. PakvaS |)at Loki, Laufeyjar sonr: 
'mun ek ok meS J)er ambatt vera, 

vit skulum aka tvser T Jptunheima.' 

22. Sgnn varu hafrar heim of reknir, 
skyndir at sk^klum, skyldu vel rgnna: 
bJQrg brotnu3u, brann JQr3 loga, 

ok OSins sonr T jQtunheima. 

92 An Icelandic Primer 

23. P>a kvad |)at Prymr, |)ursa drottinn: 
'standiS upp, JQtnar! ok straid bgkki! 
nu foera mer Freyju at kvan, 
Njardar dottur, or Noa-tunum. 

24. Ganga her at garSi guU-hyrndar kyr, 
oxn al-svartir JQtni at gamni; 

fJQld a ek meidma, fJQld a ek mgnja, 
einnar mer Freyju avant Jjykkir.' 

25. Var Jjar at kveldi of komit snimma, 
ok fyr JQtna q1 fram borit; 

einn at oxa, atta laxa, 

krasir allar, J)aer er konur skyldu, 

drakk Sifjar verr said J)rju mjaSar. 

26. Pa kvad Jjat Prymr, J)ursa drottinn: 
'hvar sattu brudir blta hvassara? 
sak-a-k brudir bita breidara, 

ne inn meira mJQ5 mey of drekka.' 

27. Sat in al-snotra ambatt fyrir, 
er or5 of fann vi5 JQtuns mali: 
'at vaetr Freyja atta nattum, 

sva var hon o6-fus T jQtunheima.' 

28. Laut und iTnu, lysti at kyssa, 
en hann utan stQkk gnd-langan sal: 
'hvl eru Qndott augu Freyju? 
J)ykkir mer or augum eldr of brgnna.' 

29. Sat in alsnotra ambatt fyrir, 
er or5 of fann vi5 JQtuns mali: 
'svaf vaetr Freyja atta nattum, 
sva var hon oSfus I jQtunheima.' 

30. Inn kom in arma JQtna systir, 
hin er bru5-fjar of bidja J)or5i: 
'lattu J)er af h^ndum hringa rauda, 
ef |)u QSlask vill astir minar, 
astir minar, alia hylli ! ' 

31. P>a kvaS J)at Prymr, |)urs a drottinn: 


'beriS inn hamar bru8i at vTgja, 
IgggiS MJQllni T meyjar kne, 
vTgi8 okkr saman Varar hgndi ! ' 

32. Hlo HloriSa hugribrjosti, 
er har8-huga8r hamar of J)gk8i; 
P>rym drap hann fyrstan, J)ursa drottin, 
okaettJQtuns alia lamdi. 

33. Drap hann ina Qldnu JQtna systur, 
hin er bruSfjar of beSit hafSi; 

hon skell of hlaut fyr skillinga, 
en hQgg hamars fyr hringa fJQl3. 
Sva kom 03ins sonr gndr at hamri. 

Chapter 14 

The references marked Gr. are to the paragraphs of the Grammar. 

14.1 Thor 

Line 3. Hann a J)ar rlki er Pru5-vangar heita, 'he reigns (there) where it is 
called P.J i.e. in the place which is called P. The plur. heita agrees with l?rudvangar, 
as in 1. 14 below: l?at eru jdrnglofar 'that is (his) iron gloves.' 

1. 5. J)at er hus mest, sva at m§nn hafa gQrt, 'that is the largest house, so that 
men have made (it),' i.e. the largest house that has been built. Note the plur. hus 
of a single house; each chamber was originally regarded as a house, being often a 
detached building. 

1. 13. spgnnir Jieim, Gr. § 154; cp. line 49 of "Thor and UtgarSaloki." 

14.2 Thor and Utgardaloki 

1. 1. for me6 hafra sTna...ok me6 honum sa, ass er... We see here that med 
generally takes an ace. to denote passive, and a dat. to denote voluntary accompa- 

1. 5. so5it refers to some such subst. as sldtr (meat) understood. 

1. 1 1. spr^tti a... a is here an adv. 

1. 12. til mgrgjar. til here implies intention — to get at the marrow. 

1. 20. jDat er sa augnanna, 'the little he saw of the eyes.' — Thor frowned till 
his eyebrows nearly covered his eyes, and the man felt as if he were going to fall 
down dead at the mere sight of them. 


96 An Icelandic Primer 

1. 21. The second hann refers, of course, to Thor. 

1. 34. til myrkrs, till it was dark. 

1. 36.l)eir,, asinl. 32 foil., showing that /e/^w^w 
is meant to refer only to the men of the party, and not to include RQskva. (Gr. § 

1. 46. ser hvar la ma6r, 'saw where a man lay,' i.e. saw a man lying. 

1. 51. einu sinni, for once in his life. 

1. 52. n^fndisk Skrymir, said his name was Skr. 

1. 66. bui6 til (prp.) natt-ver6ar y6r, prepare supper for yourselves. 

1. 77. Er J)at J)er satt at s§gja. satt is in apposition to pat — 'that is to be told 
you as the truth, (namely) that. . . ' 

1. 88. sja sik, see himself alive. 

1. 104. ]9ann = pann veg, that way, course. 

1. 108. at aesirnir baeSi JdS heila hittask. The full sense is, 'that Thor and Loki 
expressed a wish that they and Skrymir might meet again safe and sound.' 

1. 111. s§ttu hnakkann a bak ser aptr, threw back the backs of their heads till 
they touched their backs, i.e. threw back their heads. 

1. 118. cerit stora, 'rather big,' i.e. very big. 

1. 120. glotti um tgnn, 'grinned round a tooth,' i.e. showed his teeth in a mali- 
cious grin. Two MSS. read vid instead of um. 

1. 121. er annan veg en ek hygg, at...? is it otherwise than as I think, namely 
that. . . ? i.e. am I not right in thinking that. . . ? 

1. 127. engi er her sa inni er... = engi er her-inni sa-er... 

1. 129. freista skal, Gr. § 192. 

1. 140. kallar jDess meiri van at hann se... 'says that there is more probability 
of that, namely that he is. . .than of the contrary,' i.e. says that he will have to be. . . 

1. 150. fothvatari en sva, 'more swift-footed than so — under these circum- 
stances,' i.e. than you. 

1. 156. ok er Pjalfl eigi jDa kominn... = Jja er Pjalfi eigi kominn... 

1. 172. at sinni, this time. 

1. 172. hann, ace. 

1. 173. laut or horninu, bent back from the horn. 

1. 188. mestr refers to drykkr understood. 

1. 218.kalli, Gr. § 192. 

1. 241. J)0 refers to uni. 

14.3 Balder 97 

14.3 Balder 

1. 7. engi agrees with domr. 

14 A The Death of Balder 

1. 11. hann, ace. 
1. 20. ungr, too young. 

1. 31. u-happ is in apposition to pat; cp. line 7 of "Balder". 
1. 33. varu me5 einum hug til... had the same feelings towards. 
1. 36. var...fyrr, was beforehand, prevented. 
1. 42. vili, subj. 'whether he will'; — change of construction. 
1. 55. nema, 'unless,' here = 'until.' 

1. 89. heim. This use of heim in the sense of 'someone else's home.' is frequent. 
Cp. our 'drive a nail home.' 

1. 94. sva refers to ok efallir hlutir. . . , the ok being pleonastic. 
1. 108. hvar, cp. line 46 of "Thor and Utgardaloki." 
1. 113. karl, 'old man,' here = Odin. 

14.5 Hedinn and Hggni 

1. 6. HeSinn = hann; this use of a proper name instead of a pronoun is frequent. 
1. 9. l)ar, cp. line 3 of "Thor." 

14.6 The Death of Olaf Tryggvason 

1. 17. sva at, so that, i.e. just when. 
1. 30. er, namely that. 

1. 33. austan at sigla, is in a kind of apposition to f^rdina. 
1. 40. sva, also. 

1. 48. muni fyrir, awaits you, is impending. 
1. 53. meira, adv., better, faster. 

1. 149. bar hann hatt, impers. w. ace; he was in a conspicuous place. 
1. 244. vi6 fimtanda mann, one of fifteen, with fourteen men. 
1. 259. vapna is governed by the second half of the genitival compound klceda- 
bunad, which is here considered as two independent words. 

98 An Icelandic Primer 

14.7 Au5un 

1. 17. var fyrir, was to be found. 

1. 26. tvau ver6 slTk, double the price you gave. 

1. 55. fe is probably dat. here, but may be nom. 

1. 56. gptir sem..., according as, in accordance with what. 

1. 64., lately... just now. 

1. 116. h^ldr is here used pleonastically in a kind of apposition to the preceding 

1. 125. en, and = while. 

1. 129. J)essi einn var sva hlutrinn, at..., this single thing is the case, namely 
that. . .i.e. the only thing is that. . . 

14.8 Prymskvida 

1. 7. jarSar is governed by hv^rgi. 

1. 9. tuna. Poetical construction of gen. to denote goal of motion. 

1. 15. 1)0 goes with the following at - ok s^lja, poat (pott) vceri or silfri. 

1. 32. fceri may be either sg. or pi. 3 pers. 

Part III 



Introductory Notes 

s, follows a5, d follows d, ^follows e, ce follows o5, q follows o, 6 follows q, J) 
follows t. 

The declensions of nouns are only occasionally given, 
(-rs) etc. means that the r of the nom. is kept in inflection. 


-a adv. not. 

a sf. river. 

a 5ee eiga. 

a prp. w. ace. and dat. on, in. 

a5r adv., cj. before. 

aSrir see annar. 

aesir see ass. 

aetla wv. 3, consider, deem: 'aetlask fyrir,' intend. 

aett sf. 2, race, descent, family. 

aetta see eiga. 

at prp. w. dat. from; of; with; adv. 'drekka af,' drink off. 

af-hus sn. out-house, side room. 

afl sn. strength, might. 

af-taka wf. damage, injury. 

agaetliga adv. splendidly. 

aka sv. 2, drive (a chariot, etc.). 

akafliga adv. vehemently, hard — 'kalla a.' call loudly. 

akarn sn. acorn. 

akkeri sn. anchor. 

alar-§ndir sm. thong-end, end of a strap. 

al-buinn adj. w. gen. quite ready. 

aldinn adj. old. 

aldri adv. never. 

a-lgng6ar adv. for some time. 

alfr sm. elf. 

a-lit snpl. appearance, countenance [iTta]. 

all-harSr adj. very hard, very violent. 

all-lTtill adj. very little. 


104 An Icelandic Primer 

all-mann-skceSr adj. (very injurious to men), very murderous (of a battle) [skaSi, 


all-mikill adj. very great. 

allr adj. all, whole; 'me5 qUu,' entirely; 'alls fyrst,' first of all. 

all-storum adv. very greatly. 

all-valdr sm. monarch, king. 

al-snotr adj. very clever. 

al-svartr adj. very black, coal-black. 

alt adv. quite. 

ambatt sf. 2, female slave, maid. 

and-lit sn. face [lita] . 

annarrprn. second; following, next; other; oneof thetwo — 'annar. ..annarr,' one. ..the 


aptann sm. evening. 

aptastr adj. most behind. 

aptr adv. back, backwards, behind. 

ar sf. oar. 

ar sn. year. 

ar see a. 

argr adj. cowardly, base. 

ar-ma6r sm. steward. 

armr adj. wretched. 

as-mggin sn. divine strength. 

ass sm. 3, (Scandinavian) god. 

ast sf. 2, aff'ection, love, often in pi. 

ast-saell flrf/. beloved, popular, [saell, 'happy']. 

asynja wf (Scandinavian) goddess [ass]. 

at see eta. 

at prp. w. dat. at, by; to, towards, up to; for; in accordance with, after. 

at adv. to. 

-at adv. not. 

at-laga wf. attack [Igggja]. 

at-ro6r (-rar) sm. 2, rowing against, attack. 

atta num. eight. 

atta see eiga. 

au6-k§ndr adj. easy to be recognized, easily distinguishable. 

au6r adj. desert, deserted, without men. 

au6-senn adj. evident. 


auga wn. eye. 

aug-syn sf. sight. 

auka sv. 1, increase; impers., w. dat. of what is added 'jok nu miklu a,' much was 

added to it (his hesitation increased). 

austan adv. from the east. 

aust-ma6r sm. Easterner, Norwegian. 

austr sn. the east — 'I au.,' eastwards. 

austr adv. eastwards. 

austr-vegr sm. the East, especially Russia. 

avalt adv. continually, all the time. 

a-vanr adj. wanting; impers. neut. in 'einnar mer Freyju avant Jjykkir,' Freyja 

alone I seem to want. 

a-vinnr adj. toilsome, only in the impers. neut. 'mun a-vint verSa um SQxin,' it 

will be a hard fight at the prow. 


ba6 see biSja. 

ba6ir/7r«. both, neut. as adv. in 'b3e5i...ok,' both... and. 

badu see biSja. 

bseSa see biSja. 

baeSi see baSir. 

baggi wm. bag; bundle. 

bak sn. back, 'vgrja eitt baki,' defend a thing with the back, i.e. turns one's back 

to it = be a coward. 

bak-bor6i wm. larboard. 

bal sn. flame; funeral pile. 

bal-fgr sf. funeral. 

bani wm. death. 

bar see bera. 

bardagi wm. battle. 

barS sn. edge, rim; projection in the prow of a ship formed by the continuation of 

the keel. 

barSa see b§rja. 

barSi wm. war-ship with a sharp prow, ram. 

barn sn. child. 

batt see binda. 

baud see bjo6a. 

beida wv. 1, w. gen. of thing and dat. ofpers. benefited, ask, demand. 

bein sn. bone. 

bgkkr sm. 2, bench. 

bglla wv. 1, occupy oneself with, deal in, generally in a bad sense. 

bera sv. 4, carry, take; bear, endure, berask at, happen, b. fram, bring forward, 

out. b. vapn ni6r, shoot down. b. ra6 sin saman, hold council, deliberate. 

berg-risi wm. hill-giant. 


108 An Icelandic Primer 

bgrja wv. lb, strike — 'b. grjoti,' stone, b^rjask, fight. 

bgrr adj. bare, unsheathed (of a sword). 

ber-s§rkr sm. 2, wild fighter, champion. [Literally 'bear-shirt,' i.e. one clothed in 

a bear's skin.] 

bgtr see vel. 

b§tri see go6r. 

b§zt see vel. 

bgztr see go6r. 

beygja wv. 1, bend, arch. 

blSa sv. 6, w. gen. wait for; w. ace. abide, undergo. 

biSja sv. 5, ask, beg, pray, w. gen. of thing, ace. ofthepers. asked, and dat. of the 

person benefited; express a wish, bid — 'bad hann vel kominn' (vera understood), 

bad him welcome; call on, challenge, command, tell. 

bifask wv. 1, tremble, shake. 

bil sn. moment of time. 

bila wv. 2, fail. 

bilt neut. adj. only in the impers. 'einum verSr bilt,' one hesitates, is taken aback, 

is afraid. 

binda sv. 3, bind, tie up; dress. 

birta wv. 1, show [bjartr]. 

blta sv. 6, bite; cut. 

bittu see binda. 

bitu see blta. 

bjarn-dyri sn. bear. 

bjartr adj. bright, clear. 

bjo see bua. 

bjo6a sv. 1 , w. ace. and dat. off'er, propose — 'b. einum fang,' challenge to wrestling; 

invite, b. upp, give up. 

bjgrg sf help; means of subsistence, store of food. 

blasa sv. 1, blow; blow trumpet as signal. 

bleySa wf coward. 

blT6a wf. gentleness, friendliness. 

blindr adj. blind. 

blo6 sn. blood. 

blot-bolli wm. sacrificial bowl. 

bcetr see bot. 

boga-skot sn. bowshot. 

bogi wm. bow. 


bog-ma6r sm. bowman, archer. 
bond! sm. 4, yeoman, householder, (free) man [bua]. 

borS sn. side of a ship, board; rim, the margin between the rim of a vessel and 
the liquid in it — 'nu er gott beranda b. a horninu,' now there is a good margin for 
carrying the horn, i.e. its contents are so diminished that it can be lifted without 

borg sf. fortress, castle. 
borg-hliS sn. castle gate. 

bot sf. 3, mending, improvement; p/wr. bcetr, compensation. 
bgrn see barn, 
bra sf. eyelid. 
bra see bregSa. 

bragS sn. trick, stratagem [bregda]. 
brann see brgnna. 
brast see bresta. 
bratt adv. quickly. 
braut sf. way — a braut, adv. away. 
braut see brjota. 
braut, brott adv. away. 

bregSa sv. 3, w. dat. jerk, pull, push; b. upp, lift, raise (to strike), change, trans- 

breiSr adj. broad. 
brgnna wf burning; incremation. 
brgnna sv. 3, burn intr. 
br^nna wv. 1 , burn trans. 
bresta sv. 3, break, crack, burst. 
brestr sm. crack; loss. 
brjost sn. breast. 

brjota sv. 1 , break — 'b. (skip)' suffer shipwreck, also impers. 'skip (ace.) brytr,' 
the ship is wrecked. 
broddr sm. point. 
broSir sm. 4, brother. 
brotinn see brjota. 
brotna wv. 3, break intr. 
brott see braut. 
brott-laga sf. retreat. 
bru sf. bridge. 
bru6-fe sn. bridal gift. 

110 An Icelandic Primer 

bru6r sf. 2, bride. 
brun sf. 3, eyebrow. 
bryggja wf. pier. 
brynja wf. corslet. 
brynn see brun. 
bryn-stuka wf. corslet-sleeve. 
bryti see brjota. 
brytr see brjota. 
bu sn. dwelling, home. 

bua sv. 1, dwell; inhabit, possess, prepare, buask, get ready, prepare intr 'er buit 
vi6 at. . . ' it is likely to be that. . . , there is danger of. . . 
bu6u see bjoSa. 

buinn adj. ready; in a certain condition — '(vi5) sva buit' adv. under such circum- 
stances; capable, fit for — 'vel at ser buinn,' very capable, very good (at). 
bundu see binda. 
burr sm. son. 
by6r see bjo6a. 
byr see bua. 
byrja wv. 3, begin. 
byr-vaenn adj. promising a fair wind. 


daga wv. 3, dawn. 

dagan sf. dawn. 

dagr sm. day. 

dalr sm. valley. 

dauSr adj. dead. 

d§gi see dagr. 

deyja sv. 2, die. 

djupr adj. deep. 

do see deyja. 

domr sm. decision. 

dottir sf. 3, daughter. 

dggurSr sm. breakfast [-ur5 = -verSr, cp. nattverdr]. 

dokkr (-vir) adj. dark. 

draga sv. 2, draw, drag. d. saman, collect. 

drakk see drekka. 

drap see drepa. 

draumr sm. dream. 

drgginn see draga. 

dreif see drlfa. 

drgki wm. dragon; dragon-ship, ship with a dragon's head as a beak. 

drekka sv. 3, drink. 

drepa sv. 5, strike; kill. 

dreyma wv. 1, impers. w. ace. of per s. and ace. of the thing dream [draumr]. 

drlfa sv. 6, drive; hasten. 

drjupa sv. 7, drop. 

dro see draga. 

drogu see draga. 

drottinn sm. lord. 


112 An Icelandic Primer 

drottin-hollr adj. faithful to its master. 

drukkinn adj. (ptc.) drunk. 

drupu see drjupa. 

drykkja wf. drinking [drekka]. 

drykkju-ma6r sm. drinker. 

drykkr sm. 2, draught. 

duna wv. 3, resound. 

dundi see dynja. 

dvalSa see dvglja. 

dvglja wv. lb, delay, dvgljask, dwell, stop. 

dvergr sm. dwarf. 

dySrill sm. (?). 

dyja wv. lb, shake. 

dynja wv. lb, resound. 

dyr sn. animal, beast. 

dyrr sfnpl. door. 


e6a cj. or. 

ef cy. if. 

gfna wv. 1, perform, carry out. 

§ggja wv. 3, incite. 

ei6r sm. oath. 

eiga wf. property. 

eiga swv. possess, have: have as wife, be married to; have in the sense o/must. 

eigi adv. not; no. 

eign sf. property. 

eignask wv. 3, appropriate, gain. 

eik sf. 3, oak. 

einka-mal snpl. personal agreement, special treaty. 

einn num., prn. one; the same; a certain, a; alone, only — 'einn saman,' alone, 


einn-hv§rr prn. a certain, some, a. 

eira wv. 1, w. dat. spare. 

eitr sn. poison. 

ekprn. I. 

gk see aka. 

ekki prn. neut. nothing; adv. not. 

eldr sm. fire. 

glli wf. old age. 

ellifti adj. eleventh. 

ellifu num. eleven. 

em see vera. 

en cj. but; and. 

en adv. than, after compar 

§ndask wv. 1, end, suffice for. 


114 An Icelandic Primer 

§ndi, gndir sm. end. 

gnd-langr adj. the whole length — 'gndlangan sal,' the whole length of the hall. 

gndr adv. again. 

engi prn. none, no. 

gnn adv. yet, still; besides; after all. 

gptir/?rp. w. ace. after (of time), w. dat. along, over; in quest of, after; according 

to, by. adv. afterwards; behind [aptr]. 

gptri adj. compar. hind. 

tr prn. rel. who, which, rel. adv. where; when; because, that. 

er see vera. 

er see Jdu. 

grfiSi sn. work; trouble. 

ert see vera. 

eru see vera. 

eta sv. 5, eat. 

ey sf. island. 


fa sv. 1, grasp; receive, get; give; be able, fask, wrestle, fask a, be obtained, be. 

faSir sm. 4, father. 

faer see fa. 

faestr see far. 

fagnaSr sm. 2, joy; entertainment, hospitality. 

fagr adj. beautiful, fair, fine. 

fagrliga adv. finely. 

fall sn. fall. 

falla sv. 1, fall, fallask, be forgotten, fail. 

fang sn. embrace, grasp; wrestling. 

fann see finna. 

far adj. few — neut. fatt w. gen.: 'fatt manna,' few men. 

fara go, travel — w. gen. in such constr. as 'f. fgrSar sinnar,' go his way; fare (well, 

ill); happen, turn out; experience; 'f. meS einu,' deal with, treat; destroy, use up w. 

dat. farask impers. in 'fgrsk J)eim vel,' they have a good passage. 

farmr sm. lading, cargo. 

fastr adj. firm, fast, strong. 

fe sn. property, money. 

f§6rum see faSir. 

fekk see fa. 

f§gr6 sf. beauty [fagr]. 

f^grstr see fagr. 

feikn-stafir smpl. 2, wickedness. 

fela sv. 3, hide. 

felagi wm. companion. 

fe-lauss adj. penniless. 

fe-lTtill adj. with little money, poor. 

fell see falla. 


116 An Icelandic Primer 

fglla wv. 1, fell, throw down; kill [falla]. 

fengu, f^nginn see fa. 

fgr see fara. 

f§r6 sf. 2, journey [fara]. 

fer-skeyttr adj. four-cornered. 

fimm num. five. 

fimtandi adj. fifteenth. 

finna sv. 3, find; meet, go to see; notice, see. 

fla6r-hamr sm. feathered (winged) coat. 

flail sn. mountain. 

flar see fe. 

flara sf. ebb-tide; beach. 

flogur see florir. 

florSi adj. fourth. 

florir num. four. 

QqIS wf. quantity. 

flgl-kyngi sn. magic. 

flgl-mgnni sn. multitude; troop [ma3r]. 

flgrSr sm. 3, firth. 

flgrur see Qara. 

fla sv. 2, flay, skin. 

flaug see fljuga. 

flgginn see fla. 

flestr see margr. 

fljota sv. 1 , float, drift. 

fljuga sv. 1 , fly. 

flo see fljuga. 

floti wm. fleet [fljotal. 

flotti wm. flight [flyja]. 

flugu see fljuga. 

fluttu see flytja. 

flyja wv. 1, flee. 

flytja wv. lb, remove, bring. 

fnasa wv. 3, snort. 

fcera wv. 1, bring, take; fasten [fara]. 

fcerir see fara. 

foeti see fot. 

Klginn see fela. 


Klk sn. multitude, troop; people. 

for see fara. 

for-tglur wpl. representations, arguments [tala]. 

iSstra wf. nurse. 

Kt-hvatr adj. swift-footed. 

fotr sm. foot; leg. 

fgSur see faSir. 

fgr sf. journey [fara]. 

fgru-neyti sn. company [njota]. 

fra prp. from, away from; about, concerning, 'i fra' adv. away. 

fraendi sm. 4, relation. 

fra-fall sn. death. 

fram adv. forward, forth, compar. framar, ahead. 

framastr adj. superl. chief, most distinguished. 

frami wm. advantage, courage. 

framiSr see fr§mja. 

fram-stafn sm. prow. 

fra-SQgn sf. narrative, relation. 

freista wv. 3, w. gen. try, test. 

fr^mja wv. lb, perform [fram]. 

friSr sm. 2, peace. 

frlSr adj. beautiful, fine. 

fro6r adj. learned, wise. 

frcekn adj. bold, daring. 

frost sn. frost. 

fugl sm. bird. 

full-kominn adj. (ptc.) complete; ready (for). 

fullr adj. full. 

fundr sm. 2, meeting [finna]. 

fundu see finna. 

fur5u adv. awfully, very. 

fuss adj. eager. 

fylgja wv. 1, w. dat. follow; accompany. 

fylki sn. troop [folk] . 

fylkja wv. 1, w. dat. draw up (troops) [folk]. 

fyllawv. 1, fill [fullr]. 

118 An Icelandic Primer 

fyr, iyrirprp. w. ace. anddat. before; beyond, over — 'f. bord,' overboard; instead 

of — 'koma f.' adv. be given as compensation; for; because of. 'f. JjvT at,' because. 

'iTtill f. ser,' insignificant. 

fyrir-rum sn. fore-hold, chief-cabin. 

fyrirrums-maSr sm. man in the fore-hold. 

fyrr adv. compar before, formerly, superl. fyrst, first. 

fyrri adj. compar former, superl. fyrstr, first. 

fysa wv. 1, hasten trans. — impers. 'braut fysir mik,' I feel a desire to go away 



ga wv. 1, w. gen. heed, care for. 

gaefa wf. luck [gefa]. 

gaeta wv. 1, watch, take care of [geta]. 

gaf see gefa. 

gaefu-ma6r sm. lucky man. 

gaflak sn. javelin. 

gamall adj. old. 

gaman sn. amusement, joy. 

ganga sv. 1, go, with gen. of goal in poetry; attack — 'g. a skip,' board a ship. g. 

af, be finished, g. til, come up. g. upp, land; board a ship; be used up, expended 

(of money). 

garSr sm. enclosure, court; dwelling. 

gat see geta. 

gefa sv. 5, give. 

gggnum, T gggnum prp. w. gen. through. 

gekk see ganga. 

gglti see gQltr. 

g§nginn, ggngr, gengu see ganga. 

geta sv. 5, w. gen. mention, speak of; guess, suppose. 

geysi adv. excessively. 

gipta wf. luck [gefa]. 

giptu-ma6r sm. lucky man. 

gjafar see gJQt 

gJQf 5/ gift. 

glotta wv. 2, smile maliciously, grin. 

glaesiligr adj. magnificent. 

gnyr sm. din, noise. 

go5r adj. good — 'gott er til eins,' it is easy to get at, obtain. 


120 An Icelandic Primer 

golf sn. floor; apartment, room. 

gott see go6r. 

ggfugr adj. distinguished [gefa] . 

ggltr sm. 3, boar. 

ggmul see gamall. 

ggra wv. Ic, do, make, ggrask, set about doing; be made into, become. gQra at, 

accomplish, carry out. 

ggrsimi wf. article of value, treasure. 

granda wv. 3, w. dat. injure. 

grar adj. gray. 

gras sn. grass; plant, flower. 

grata sv. 1, weep, mourn for. 

gratr sm. weeping. 

greiSa wv. 1, put in order, arrange. 

greip see grlpa. 

gres-jarn sn. iron wire (?). 

grey sn. dog. 

grid snpl. peace, security. 

gri6a-sta6r sm. sanctuary. 

grind sf. 3, lattice door, wicket. 

grlpa sv. 6, seize. 

gripr sm. 2, article of value, treasure. 

grjot sn. stone (collectively). 

groa sv. 1, grow; heal. 

grcer see groa. 

gruna wv. 3, impers. — 'mik grunar,' I suspect, think. 

grunr sm. 2, suspicion. 

gull sn. gold. 

gull-band sn. gold band. 

gull-buinn adj. adorned with gold. 

gull-hringr sm. gold ring. 

gull-hyrndr adj. (ptc.) with gilt horns. 

gull-ro6inn adj. (ptc.) gilt. 

gygr sf. giantess. 

gyltr adj. (ptc.) gilt. 

gyrSa wv. 1 , gird. 


haestr see har. 

hsetta wv. 1, w. dat. desist from, stop. 

haettligr adj. dangerous, threatening. 

haettr adj. dangerous. 

haf5«. sea. 

hafa wv. 1, have; 'h. einn nter einu,' bring near to, expose to; use, utilize, at 

hafask, undertake, til hafa, have at hand. 

hafna see hgfn. 

hafr sm. goat. 

hafr-staka wf. goatskin. 

hagliga adv. neatly. 

hagr sm. condition; advantage — 'Jier mun h. a vera,' will avail thee, be profitable 

to you. 

hag-stceSr adj. favourable. 

halda sv. 1, w. dat. hold (also with prp. a); keep. w. ace. observe, keep (laws, 

etc.). intr. take a certain direction, go. 

halfr adj. half. 

halfu adv. by half, half as much again. 

hallar see hgll. 

hallar-golf sn. hall floor. 

haltr adj. lame. 

hamarr sm. hammer. 

hamars-mu6r sm. thin end of hammer. 

hamar-skapt sn. handle of a hammer. 

hamar-spor sn. mark made by a hammer. 

hana see hann. 

handar see hgnd. 

hand-skot sn. throwing with the hand. 


122 An Icelandic Primer 

hand-t§kinn ptc. pret. taken by hand, taken alive. 

hann prn. he. 

har sn. hair. 

har adj. high. 

har6-huga6r adj. stern of mood. 

harSr adj. hard; strong. 

har6-skeytr adj. strong-shooting [skjota]. 

harmr sm. grief. 

haski wm. danger. 

ha-saeti sn. high seat, dais [sitja]. 

hassetis-kista sf. chest under the dais. 

hatt adv. high; loudly. 

haugr sm. mound. 

hauss sm. skull. 

hedan adv. hence. 

h§fi see hafa. 

h§Qa sv. 2, raise, lift; begin. 

h^fna wv. 1, w. gen. revenge, avenge. 

heill adj. sound, safe, prosperous. 

heil-rae6i sn. sound advice, good advice [ra5]. 

heim adv. to one's home, home (domum). 

heima adv. at home (domi). 

heima-ma6r sm. man of the household. 

heim-fuss adj. longing to go home, homesick. 

heimr sm. home, dwelling; world. 

heimta wv. 1, fetch, obtain, get back. 

heita sv. 1, call; w. dat. ofpers. and dat. of thing promise; intr. (pres. heiti) be 

named, called. 

h§ldr see halda. 

h^ldr adv. compar more willingly, rather, sooner, more; rather, very. 

h§l-grindr sf. the doors of hell. 

hgllir sm. cave. 

belt see halda. 

hgl-vegr sm. road to hell. 

hglzt adv. superl. most willingly, soonest, especially, most [hgldr]. 

h§ndi, h^ndr see hgnd. 

hgnnar, h§nni see hann. 

h§pta wv. 1, bind; hinder, stop. 


her adv. here — 'h. af,' etc. here-of. 

hgr-bergi sn. quarters, lodgings. 

h§r6a wv. harden, clench. 

hgr-fang sn. booty. 

hgrja wv. 3, make war, ravage [hgrr]. 

hgrr sm. army, fleet. 

herra sm. lord. 

h§r-skip sn. war-ship. 

hestr sm. horse. 

het see heita. 

heyra wv. 1 , hear. 

himinn sm. heaven. 

hingat adv. hither. 

hinn prn. that. 

hir6 sf. court. 

hir6-ma6r sm. courtier. 

hiti wm. heat. 

hitta wv. come upon, find, meet; trans, go to. hittask, meet, intr. 

hja prp. w. dat. by, at; in comparison with. 

hjalmr sm. helmet. 

hjon snpl. household. 

hlada sv. 2, load, heap up; 'h. seglum,' take in sails. 

hlseja sv. 2, laugh. 

hlaupa sv. 1, jump, leap; run. 

hlaut see hljota. 

hleyp see hlaupa. 

hleypa wv. 1, make to run (i.e. the horse), gallop. 

hSisf. shield. 

hlTfa wv. 1 , w. dat. shelter, cover, protect. 

hljop see hlaupa. 

hljota sv. 1 , get, receive. 

hlodu see hlada. 

hlogu see hlseja. 

hlunnr sm. roller (for launching ships). 

hluti wm. portion [hljota]. 

hlutr sm. 2, share; portion, part, piece; thing [hljota]. 

hlut-skipti sn. booty. 

hnakki wm. back of head. 

124 An Icelandic Primer 

hof see h§Qa. 

hollr adj. gracious, faithful. 

holmr sm. small island. 

hon see hann. 

honum see hann. 

horn sn. horn. 

hcegri adj. compar right (hand). 

hcela wv. 1, w. dat. praise, boast of. 

hgfSingi wm. chief [h^fuS]. 

hQf6a-flQl sf. head-board (especially of a bedstead). 

hgfSu see hafa. 

hgfn sf. harbour. 

hgfuS sn. head. 

hggg sn. stroke. 

hggg-ormr sm. viper. 

hggg-orrosta wf. 'cutting-fight,' hand-to-hand fight. 

hgggva sv. 1, hew, cut, strike. 

hgll sf. hall. 

hgnd sf. 3, hand; side — 'hvarra-tvgggju handar,' on both sides, for both parties. 

hraeddr flJ/. frightened, afraid {ptc. of hrseSask]. 

hraeSask wv. 1 , be frightened, fear. 

hrsezla wf. fear [hraeSask]. 

hrafn sm. raven. 

hratt see hrinda. 

hrau6 see hrjoSa. 

hraut see hrjota. 

hreyfa wv. l,move. 

hrlfl sf. period of time. 

hrTm-J)urs sm. frost giant. 

hrinda sv. 3, push, launch (ship). 

hrista wv. 1, shake. 

hrjoSa sv. 1 , strip, clear, disable. 

hrjota sv. 1 , start, burst out. 

hrgkk see hrokkva. 

hrokkva sv. 3, start back. 

hrySi see hrjota. 

hrynja wv. lb, fall down. 

hrytr see hrjota. 


hugda see hyggja. 

hugi wm. thought. 

hugr sm. mind, heart; courage, spirit. 

hugsa wv. 3, consider, think. 

hundrad sn. hundred. 

hur6 sf. 2, door. 

hus sn. room; house. 

hvar adv. where; that. 

hvarr prn. which of two; each of the two, both. 

hvarr-tv§ggja prn. each of the two, both. 

hvart adv. whether, hoth in direct and indirect questions. 

hvart-tv§ggja adv. 'hv. . . ok,' both. . . and. 

hvass adj. sharp. 

hvatprn. neut. what. 

hvart adj. brisk, bold. 

hve adv. how. 

hverfa 5 v. 3, turn, go. 

hv§r-gi adv. nowhere — 'hv. jarSar,' nowhere on earth; in no respect, by no means. 

hv^rnig adv. how [= hvgrn veg.]. 

hv^rrprn. who. 

hv^rsu adv. how. 

hvT adv. why. 

hvirfill sm. crown of head. 

hvTtna wv. 2, whiten. 

hvTtr adj. white. 

hyggja wv. lb, think, mean, determine [hugr]. 

hylli wf. favour [hoUr] . 

iprp. in. 

T-huga wv. 3, try to remember, consider [hugr]. 

ilia adv. ill, badly. 

illr adj. ill, bad. 

inn art. the. 

inn adv. in compar. innar, further in. 

inna wv. 1, accomplish. 

innan adv. within, inside, fyrir innan prp. w. gen. within, in. 

inni adv. in. 

it see J)fi. 

it see inn. 

T-jDrott sf. feat. 


jafn-brei6r adj. equally broad. 

jafn-hgfugr adj. equally heavy [hgfja]. 

jafn-mikill adj. equally great. 

jafn-skjott adv. equally quick. 

jafna wv. 3, smooth; compare w. dat. of thing compared. 

jafnan adv. always. 

jarl sm. earl. 

jarn sn. iron. 

jarn-glofi sm. iron gauntlet. 

jarn-spgng sf. iron plate. 

jata wv. 1, w. dat. agree to. 

jok see auka. 

JQr6 sf. earth. 

JQtun-heimar smpl. home, world of the giants. 

JQtunn, sm. giant. 



kaer-leikr sm. love, affection [kaerr, 'dear']. 

kaf i'n. diving; deep water, water under the surface. 

kafa wv. 3, dive. 

kalla wv. 3, cry out, call; assert, maintain; name, call. 

kann see kunna. 

kapp sn. competition. 

karl sm. man; old man. 

kasta wv. 3, cast, throw. 

kaupa wv. 2, buy. 

kgngr sm. bend. 

k§nna wv. 1, know; perceive. 

kgrling sf. old woman [karl]. 

kgrra w/. chariot. 

k§till sm. kettle. 

keypta see kaupa. 

keyra wv. 1, drive. 

kirkja w/. church. 

kirkju-skot sn. wing of a church. 

kjosa sv. 1 , choose. 

klakk-laust adv. uninjured. 

klaeSa wv. 1, clothe. 

klaeSa-bunaSr sm. apparel. 

klsedi snpl. clothes. 

kne sn. knee. 

knlfr sm. knife. 

kngrr sm. merchant-ship. 

knudi see knyja. 

knui wm. knuckle. 


132 An Icelandic Primer 

knutr sm. knot. 

knyja wv. lb, press with knuckles or knees; exert oneself [knui]. 

kolf-skot sn. (distance of a) bolt-shot. 

kollottr adj. bald. 

koma sv. 4, come; happen, turn out; w. dat. bring into a certain condition, k. fyrir, 

be paid in atonement, komask, make one's way (by dint of exertion). 

kona wf. woman; wife. 

konr sm. kind — 'alls konar,' all kinds; 'nakkvars konar,' of some kind. 

konunga-st§fna wf. congress of kings. 

konungr sm. king. 

konungs-dottir sf. king's daughter. 

konungs-skip sn. king's ship. 

kosinn see kjosa. 

kost-gripr sm. precious thing, treasure. 

kostr sm. 2, choice — 'at Q5ru kosti,' otherwise; power [kjosa]. 

kggur-sveinn sm. little boy, urchin. 

kgpp see kapp. 

kgpur-yrSi sn. boasting [orS]. 

kgttr sm. 3, cat. 

kom see koma. 

krappa-rum sn. back cabin. 

krappr adj. narrow. 

kraptr sm. strength. 

kras sf. 2, delicacy. 

krgfla wv. lb, w. ace. ofpers. and gen. of thing, demand. 

kunna swv. know; feel; venture; like to. 

kunnandi wf. knowledge, accomplishments. 

kunnusta wf. knowledge, power. 

kunnr adj. known. 

kurr sm. murmur, rumour. 

kvaeSi sn. poem. 

kvaema see koma. 

kvan sf. wife. 

kveSa sv. 5, say. kv. a settle, agree on. 

kvgSja wf. salutation [kveda]. 

kvgSja wv. lb, greet. 

kveld 5n. evening — 'ikv.,' this evening. 

kveld-sQngr sm. vespers. 


kvenn-vaSir sfpl. woman's clothes. 

kviSr sm. 3, stomach, belly. 

kvisa wv. 3, whisper. 

kvistr sm. 3, branch, twig. 

kvQddu see kvgSja. 

kykr (-vir) adj. living. 

kykvendi sn. living creature, animal. 

kyll sm. bag. 

kyn sn. race, lineage. 

kyr sf. 3, cow. 

kyssa wv. 1, kiss. 

la see liggja. 
Isegri see lagr. 

laer-l§ggr sm. thigh-bone. 
laet see lata, 
lagda see l§ggja. 

lagr adj. low; short of stature [liggja]. 
lags-maSr sm. companion. 
lagu see liggja. 
lamda, lamit see l§mja. 
land sn. land, country. 
land-skjalfti wm. earthquake. 
langr adj. long, far. 
lat snpl. noise. 

lata sv. 1, let go; leave; lose; allow; cause, let; behave, act; say. 
lauf 5n. foliage. 

laufs-blad sn. (blade of foliage), leaf. 
laug sf. bath. 
laun snpl. reward. 

launa wv. 3, reward, requite w. dat. of the thing given and ofthepers., and ace. of 
the thing requited. 

lauss adj. loose; shaky, unsteady; free from obligation. 
laust see Ijosta. 
laut see luta. 
lax sm. salmon. 
le5r-hosa wf leather bag. 

l§ggja wv. lb, lay, put; '1. eitt fyrir einn,' give, settle on; '1. sik fram,' exert one- 
self; intr. w. skip understood sail, row — 1. at, land; attack; 1. fra, retreat, draw off; 
pierce, make a thrust, l^ggjask, set out, proceed; swim [liggja]. 


136 An Icelandic Primer 

lei6 sf. way — 'koma einu til leidar,' carry out [lT5a]. 

Iei6 see lT6a. 

leiSa wv. 1, lead, conduct [lT6a]. 

leiSangr (-rs) sm. levy [leid]. 

leiga wv. 1 , borrow. 

leikr sm. game; athletic sports, contest. 

leita wv. 3, w. gen. and dat. seek; take to, have recourse to. leitask, feel one's way 


l^mja wv. lb, break. 

IgngS sf. length [langr]. 

Igngi adv. long (of time) [langr]. 

Igngstr see langr. 

let see lata. 

Igtja wv. lb, w. ace. ofpers. and gen. of thing, hinder, dissuade. 

letta wv. 1 , w. dat. lift. 

leyniliga adv. secretly. 

leysa wv. 1, loosen, untie, open [lauss]. 

116 sn. troop. 

lT6a sv. 6, go; pass (of time); impers. lT6r, w. dat. fare, get on. impers. 'lT5r a 

(nattina),' (the night) is drawing to a close. 

IT{ sn. life — 'a iTfi,' alive. 

Ufa wv. 2, live. 

liggja sv. 5, lie. 1. til, be fitting. 

Ilk sn. body; corpse. 

ITka wv. 3, w. dat. please. 

ITki sn. form [iTk]. 

liking sf. likeness, similarity [likr]. 

ITknsamr adj. gracious. 

ITkr adj. like. 

ITn sn. linen; linen headdress. 

list sf. art. 

ITta sv. 6, look at; regard, consider — '1. til eins.' turn to, acknowledge greeting. 

ITtask impers. w. dat. seem. 

litask wv. 3, look round one [iTta]. 

ITtill adj. little, small — 'litit ve5r,' not very windy weather. ITtlu adv. by a little, a 


lltil-raeSi sm. degradation [ra6]. 

litr sm. 3, colour, complexion; appearance [iTta]. 


ITzk see ITta. 

Ija wv. 1, w. gen. and dat. lend. 

Ijosta sv. 1 , strike, w. dat. ofinstr. and ace. of the thing struck — '1. arum T sae,' dip 
the oars into the sea, begin to row. 
lofa wv. 3, praise. 
loga wv. 3, w. dat. part with. 
logi wm. flame. 
lokinn see luka. 
lopt sn. air — 'a 1.,' up. 

luka sv. 7, lock, close; impers. 'lykr einu,' it is finished, exhausted. '1. upp,' un- 
lock, open. 
lukla see lykill. 
lustu see Ijosta. 
luta sv. 1 , bend, bow. 
lygi wf. lie, falsehood. 
lykS sf. ending — 'at lykSum,' finally. 
lykill sm. key [luka]. 
lypta wv. 1 , w. dat. lift [lopt] . 

lypting sf. raised place (castle) on the poop of a warship [lypta]. 
lysa wv. 1, shine. 
lysi-gull sn. bright gold. 
lyst see Ijosta. 
lysta wv. 1, impers. w. ace. desire. 


ma see mega. 

ma6r sm. 4, man. 

msela (maelta) wv. 1, speak — 'm. vi5 einu,' refuse; suggest. 

maer sf. virgin, maid. 

m^etta see mega. 

magr (-ran) adj. thin. 

magr sm. kinsman, relation, connection. 

makligr adj. fitting. 

mal sn. narrative; in plur. poem; proper time, time. 

malmr sm. metal. 

mann see ma6r. 

mann-folk sn. troops, crew. 

mann-hringr sm. ring of men. 

mannliga adv. manlily. 

margr adj. many, much. 

mark sn. mark; importance. 

marka wv. 3, infer. 

marr sm. horse. 

mart see margr. 

matask wv. 3, eat a meal. 

matr sm. 2, food. 

matta see mega. 

mattr sm. 2, might, strength. 

me6 prp. w. ace. and dat. with. 

medal s. middle — a m. w. gen. between. 

medan adv. whilst. 

mega swv. can, may. 


140 An Icelandic Primer 

megin — 'Qdrum m.,' on the other side; 'Qllum m.,' on all sides {corruption of 


m§gin-gjar6ar sfpl. girdle of strength [mega]. 

meiSmar sfpl. treasures. 

meiri see mikill. 

m§n sn. necklace, piece of jewelry. 

m§nn see ma6r. 

mer see ek. 

m^rgr sm. 2, marrow. 

m^rki sn. mark; banner [mark]. 

mest see mikill. 

meta sv. 5, measure; estimate. 

mey see maer. 

mi6-gar6r sm. (middle enclosure), world. 

mi6gar6s-ormr sm. world-serpent. 

mi6r adj. middle. 

mik see ek. 

mikill adj. big, tall, great, mikit adv. much, very. 

miklu fl Jv. (instr.) much. 

milli, a milli prp. between, among. 

minjar sfpl. remembrance, memorial. 

minn see ek. 

minni see ITtill. 

minnr adv. less. 

mis-lTka wv. 3, w. dat. displease, not please. 

missa wf loss, want. 

missa wv. 1, w. gen. lose; do without. 

mistil-teinn 5m. mistletoe [teinn, 'twig']. 

mitt see ek. 

mjgSr sm. 3, mead. 

mjgk adv. very. 

mo6ir sf 3, mother. 

mo6r sm. anger. 

mcetask wv. 1, meet intr [mot]. 

mgn sf. mane. 

morginn sm. morning. 

mgrk sf. 3, forest. 

mgrum see marr. 


mot sn. meeting. T moti prp. w. dat. against. 

mgtu-neyti sn. community of food — 'Igggja m. sitt,' make their provision into a 

common store [matr; njota]. 

mundu see munu. 

munnr sm. mouth. 

munr sm. difference — 'Jjeim mun,' to that extent. 

munu swv. will, may (of futurity and probability). 

myndi see munu. 

myrkr sn. darkness. 

myrkr adj. dark. 


na wv. 1, reach, obtain; succeed in. 

nabr adv. w. dat. near; nearly, superl. naest — 'J)vln.,' thereupon. 

nsetr see natt. 

nafn sn. name. 

nakkvarr pm. some, a certain, nakkvat adv. somewhat; perhaps. 

natt sf. 3, night. 

natt-bol sn. night-quarters. 

natt-langt adv. the whole night long. 

natt-sta6r sm. night-quarters. 

nattura wf. nature, peculiarity. 

natt-verSr sm. 2, supper. 

nau5-syn sf. necessity. 

naut see njota. 

neSan adv. below, fyrir n. prp. w. dat. below. 

n§Qa adj. long-nosed (?). 

n^fna wv. 1, name, call, n^fnask, name oneself, give one's name as [nafn]. 

nema sv. 4, take; begin. 

nema adv. except, unless. 

nest sn. provisions. 

nest-baggi sm. provision-bag. 

ni6r adv. down, downwards. 

nlundi adj. ninth. 

njosn sf. spying; news. 

njosna wv. 3, spy; get intelligence. 

njota sv. 1 , enjoy, profit. 

norSr adv. northwards. 

npkkvi wm. vessel, small ship. 

nu adv. now; therefore, so. 


144 An Icelandic Primer 

ny-vakna6r adj. (ptc.) newly awoke. 

nyr adj. new. 

nyta wv. 1, profit [njota]. 


oddr sm. point. 

o6-fuss adj. madly eager. 

o6r adj. mad, furious. 

(E~pa wv. 1, shout [op, 'shout']. 

cerit adv. enough; very. 

oiprp. w. dat. over; during; with respect to, about, adv. too (of excess). 

of adv., often used in poetry as a mere expletive. 

of-veikr adj. too weak. 

ofan adv. above; down. 

ofan-ver6r adj. upper, on the top. 

ok see aka. 

ok conj. and; also — 'ok... ok,' both... and; but. 

okkr see J)u. 

opt adv. often, compar optar, oftener, again. 

or prp. w. dat. out of. 

or6 sn. word — 'i gdm ordi,' otherwise. 

orSinn see verSa. 

or6-sgnding sf. verbal message. 

or6-tak sn. expression, word. 

ormr sm. serpent, dragon; ship with a dragon's head. 

orrosta wf. battle. 

OSS see ek. 

otta wf. the end of night, just before dawn. 

ottalaust adj. without fear. 

ox see vaxa. 

oxi wm. ox. 

gdlask wv. 3, obtain. 

gSru see annarr. 


146 An Icelandic Primer 

q1 sn. ale. 

Qldnu see aldinn. 

Qndottr adj. fierce. 

Qnd-vegi sn. high seat, dais. 

Qnnur see annar. 

Qr sf. arrow. 

or-aefi sn. harbourless coast. 

orendi sn. errand. 

orendi sn. holding the breath, breath. 

orind-reki sm. messenger [reka]. 

oxn see oxi. 

pati sm. rumour. 
pgnningr sm. penny. 



ra6 sn. advice; what is advisable — 'sja eitt at raSi,' consider advisable; plan, pol- 
icy, resolution. 

ra6a sv. 1 , advise, w. ace. of thing and dat. ofpers. ; consider, deliberate; undertake, 
begin w. prp. til or infin.; dispose of, have control over w. prp. fyrir. 
ra6a-gQr6 sf. deliberation, decision. 
raSugr adj. sagacious. 

ragna-rokr sn. twilight of the gods, end of the world, [ragna gen. o/rggin neut. 
plur. 'gods.'] 
ragr adj. cowardly. 
raku see reka. 
rann see rgnna. 
ras sf. race. 
rau6r adj. red. 

rausn sf. magnificence, anything magnificent. 
re5 see ra6a. 
rei6 sf. chariot. 
rei6 see rlSa. 

reiSa wv. 1, swing, wield, brandish. 
rei6-fara adj. — 'vera vel r.,' have a good passage. 
reiSi sn. trappings, harness. 
reiSr adj. angry. 

reka sv. 7, drive; carry out; perform, 'r. af tjgld,' take down awning. 
r^kkja wf bed. 
r§nna sv. 3, run. 

retta wv. 1, direct; reach, stretch, r. upp, pull up. 
rettr adj. right, correct; equitable, fair. 
reyna wv. 1 , try, test. 
reyr-bgnd supl. the wire with which the arrow-head was bound to the shaft. 


150 An Icelandic Primer 

rlSa sv. 6, w. dat. ride. 

ri6u see rlSa. 

ridlask wv. 3, set oneself in motion. 

rlki sn. power; sovereignty, reign. 

rlkr adj. powerful, distinguished. 

ripti sn. linen cloth. 

rita wv. 3, write. 

roa sv. 1 , row. 

rceSa wv. 1, talk about, discuss. 

rora see roa. 

rgst sf. league. 


sa prn. that; he; such, such a one. 

sa see sja. 

saer sm. sea. 

saera wv. 1, wound [sar]. 

saeti sn. seat [sitja]. 

saett sf. 2, reconciliation, peace. 

saettask wv. 1, be reconciled, agree. 

saga wf. narrative, history, story. 

sagda see sggja. 

saka wv. impers. w. ace. — 'hann (ace.) sakadi ekki,' he was not injured. 

sakna wv. 3, w. gen. miss. 

sal sf. 2, soul. 

said sn. gallon. 

salr sm. 2, hall. 

saman adv. together. 

sami weak adj. same. 

sam-laga wf. laying ships together for battle. 

samt adv. together. 

sannligr adj. probable; suitable, right. 

sannr adj. true. 

sar sn. wound. 

sarr adj. wounded. 

sat see sitja. 

satt see sannr. 

se see vera. 

se see sja. 

sefask wv. 3, be pacified. 

sggja wv. lb, say, relate [saga]. 


152 An Icelandic Primer 

segl sn. sail. 

seilask wv. 1, stretch intr 
seinn adj. late, slow, tedious, seint adv. slowly. 
s^lja wv. 1, give; sell. 

sem adv. as; w. subj. as if; to strengthen the superl. — 'sem mest,' the most possi- 
ble, as much as possible. 
s§nda wv. 1, send. 
s§ndi-ma6r sm. messenger. 

s§nn adv. at the same time, at once; immediately, forthwith. 
senn see sja. 
ser see sik. 
ser see sja. 
set see sja. 

set-berg sn. seat-shaped rock, crag [sitja]. 

s^tja wv. 1, set, place, s. fram, launch (a ship), s^tjask, sit down, sgtjask upp, 
sit up [sitja]. 

sT-byr6a wv. 1 , w. dat. lay a ship alongside another, neut. ptc. sTbyrt, close up to 

sT6 adv. late. comp. siSar, later, afterwards, superl. slSast, latest, last. 
sT6a wf. side. 

sT6an adv. afterwards, then; since. 
slSari adj. comp. later, second (in order). 
si6r sm. 3, custom. 
sTga sv. 6, sink. 
sigla wf. mast [segl]. 
sigla wv. 1, sail. 

siglu-skeiS sn. middle of a ship. 
sigr (-rs) sm. victory. 
sigr-op shout of victory, 
sikprn. oneself. 
silfr sn. silver. 
sin see sik. 

sinn sn. time (of repetition) — 'einu sinni,' once, for once, 'eigi optar at sinni,' not 
oftener than that time, i.e. only once. 
sinn see sik. 

sitja sv. 5, sit. s. fyrir, sit in readiness. 
sja = J)essi. 


sja sv. 5, see; 's. fyrir einu,' look after, take care of. impers. 'iTtt ser |)at a, at'... it 

will hardly be seen that. ..sjask, see one another, meet. 

sjalfrprw. self. 

sjoda sv. 1 , boil; cook. 

sjon sf. sight. 

sjon-hvgrfing sf. ocular delusion. 

skal see skulu. 

skalf see skjalfa. 

skali wm. hall. 

skammr adj. short. 

skap sn. state, condition; state of mind, mood, humour. 

skapligr adj. suitable, fit. 

skapt sn. shaft, handle. 

skar see skera. 

skarS sn. notch, gap; defect. 

skaut see skjota. 

skggg sn. beard; beak (of a ship). 

skeiS sn. race-course, running-ground; race — 'taka sk.,' start in a race. 

skeina wv. 1, graze. 

skellr sm. knock. 

sk§mtun sf. amusement, entertainment [skammr, literally 'shortening (of time)']. 

skera sv. cut, cut up; kill (animal). 

skiljask wv. 1, separate, part intn 

skillingr sm. shilling, coin. 

skilnadr sm. separation, parting. 

skip sn. ship. 

skipa wv. 3, order, arrange, prepare, fit out. 'sk. til um eitt,' make arrangements 

for. skipask, take one's place; change, alter intr 

skipa-hgrr sm. fleet. 

skipan sf. arranging; ship's crew. 

skips-brot sn. shipwreck. 

skip-stjornar-ma6r sm. (steerer), commander of a ship, captain. 

skjald-borg sf. wall of shields, testudo. 

skjalfa sv. 3, shake intr 

skjota sv. 1 , w. dat. shoot, throw, push. 

skjot-fceri sn. swiftness. 

skjot-leikr sm. swiftness. 

skjot-liga adv. swiftly, quick. 

154 An Icelandic Primer 

skjotr adj. swift, quick, skjott adv. quickly. 

skJQldr sm. 3, shield. 

skogr sm. forest, wood. 

skorta wv. 1, impers. w. ace. ofpers. and of thing, want, fail. 

skot sn. shot; missile [skjota]. 

skot-mal sn. shot-measure, range. 

skotta wv. 3, dangle — sk. vi6 drift (of ships). 

skgkull sm. shaft (of a cart). 

skQinm sf. disgrace, shame. 

skgr sf. hair of the head. 

skreppa wf bag, wallet. 

skulfu see skjalfa. 

skulu swv. shall. 

skuta wf. small ship, cutter. 

skutill sm. trencher, small table. 

skutil-sveinn sm. page, chamberlain. 

skutu see skjota. 

skykkr sm. shake — 'ganga skykkjum,' shake. 

skylda see skulu. 

skyldr adj. obliged, obligatory, bound [skulu]. 

skyn sn. understanding, insight — 'kunna, sk.' understand. 

skynda wv. 1, hasten, bring in haste. 

skyndiliga adv. hastily, quickly. 

skynsamliga adv. intelligently, carefully. 

skyt see skjota. 

sla sv. 2, strike, 'sla eldi I,' light a fire. 

sl^eliga adv. sluggishly, weakly. 

slaer adj. blunt. 

slaer see sla. 

slatr sn. meat. 

sleikja wv. lick. 

sleit see slTta. 

slettr adj. level, smooth; comfortable, easy. 

slTkr adj. such. 

slTta sv. 6, tear — si. upp, pull up; w. dat. break (agreement). 

smaeri see smar. 

smar adj. small, insignificant. 

sma-skip snpl. small ships. 


sma-skuta wf. small cutter. 

smjuga sv. 1 , squeeze through, slip. 

smugu see smjuga. 

snarpligr adj. vigorous. 

snarpr adj. sharp; vigorous. 

snimma adv. early. 

snora see snua. 

snua sv. 1, w. dat. turn or {trans.) direct; twist, plait, snuask, turn (intr). 

soSinn see sjo6a. 

scekja wv. Ic, seek; go — 's. aptr,' retreat. 

scemS sf. honour [soma]. 

scetti see scekja. 

sofa sv. 4, sleep. 

sofna wv. 3, go to sleep. 

sQgur see saga. 

SQk sf. cause — 'fyrir }3a s. at'..., because. 

sokkva sv. 3, sink. 

sol sf. sun. 

sol-skin sn. sunshine. 

soltinn adj. hungry [ptc. o/'svelta,' starve]. 

soma wv. 2, w. dat., be suitable, befitting. 

somi wm. honour. 

sonr sm. son. 

sott sf. illness. 

sotta see scekja. 

SQx snpl. raised prow of a war-ship. 

spala see spglr. 

sparask wv. 2, spare oneself, reserve one's energy. 

sp^nna (sp^nta) wv. 1, w. dat. of thing, gird, buckle on. 

spjot sn. spear. 

sporSr sm. tail. 

spori sm. spur. 

spglr sm. rail. 

sprakk see springa. 

sprgtta wv. 1 , split. 

springa sv. 3, burst. 

spurSa see spyrja. 

156 An Icelandic Primer 

spyrja wv. lb, ask; hear of, learn — 'sp. til eins,' have news of, hear of his arrival. 

spyrjask, be known. 

spyrna wv. 1 , kick. 

staddr flJ/. placed, staying {ptc. o/'stg5ja,' place]. 

staSr sm. place — 'T staSinn,' instead. 

stafaSr adj. (ptc.) striped. 

staf-karl sm. (staff-man), beggar. 

stafn sm. prow. 

stafn-bui wm. prow-man. 

stafn-le wm. grappling-hook. 

stafr sm. 2 {gen. sg. stafs), staff, stick. 

stakk see stinga. 

stallari sm. marshall. 

standa sv. 2, stand, st. upp, stand up, rise. 

starfa wv. 3, work. 

st§fna wv. 1, steer; take a course, go. 

steig see stTga. 

steinn sm. stone; jewel. 

stela sv. 4, w. dat. of thing and ace. ofpers. steal, rob. 

st^ndr see standa. 

stgrkliga adv. vigorously. 

stgrkr adj. strong. 

steypa wv. 1, w. dat. of thing, throw; pull off. steypask, throw oneself. 

stlga sv. 6, advance, walk, go. st. upp, mount (horse). 

stlgr sm. path, way. 

stikill sm. point. 

stilla (stilta) wv. 1, arrange, st. til, arrange, dispose. 

stinga sv. 3, pierce; 'st. stQfnum at skipi,' run the prow against a ship's side. 

stirt fl Jv. harshly [neut. o/'stir5r,' stiff]. 

sto6 see standa. 

stcerri see stor. 

stokkva sv. 3, spring, rebound, start back. 

stolinn see stela. 

storliga adv. bigly, arrogantly. 

stor-mannligr adj. magnificent, aristocratic. 

stor-mgnni sn. great men (collective), aristocracy. 

storr adj. big, great, storum adv. greatly. 

stor-ra6r adj. (great of plans), ambitious. 


stor-skip sn. big ship. 

stor-virki sn. great deed. 

stra wv. 1 , strew, cover with straw. 

strauk see strjuka. 

str§ngr sm. 2, string. 

strjuka sv. 7, stroke. 

stund sf. period of time, time. 

stutt fl Jv. shortly, abruptly {neut. o/'stuttr' short]. 

styra wv. 1 , w. dat. steer. 

styri sn. rudder. 

styris-hnakki wm. top piece of rudder. 

styrkr sm. strength; help. 

su see sa. 

su6r adv. southward. 

su6r-ganga wf. journey south (to Rome). 

sukku see sokkva. 

sumar sn. summer. 

snmr prn. some. 

sund sn. sound, channel. 

sva adv. so, as; as soon as. 'ok sva,' also. 

svaf see sofa. 

svara wv. 3, w. dat. of thing, answer. 

svardagi sm. oath. 

sveinn sm. boy. 

sveinn-stauli wm. small boy. 

sveit sf. troop. 

svelga sv. 3, swallow, gulp. 

sverS sn. sword. 

sver6s-hQgg sn. swordstroke. 

svipan sf. jerk; moment. 

svipting sf. pull, struggle. 

synask wv. 1, seem [sjon]. 

syni see sonr. 

systir sf. 3, sister. 

taka wv. 2, w. ace. take, seize, take possession of; w. inf. begin; w. dat. receive 

(well, ill, etc.). takask, take place, begin, t. at, choose, t. til, engage in, try. t. 

upp, take to, choose. 

tala wf. talk, speech. 

tala wv. 3, speak, talk about, discuss. 

taliSr see tglja. 

talma wv. 3, hinder. 

tar sn. tear. 

taumar smpl. reins. 

t^kinn see taka. 

t^lja wv. lb, count, recount; account, consider; relate, say [tala]. 

tgngSir sfpl. relationship, connection by marriage. 

t§ngja wv. 1, bind, fasten together. 

t^ngsl snpl. cable. 

tlSa wv. 1, impers. w. ace. desire. 

tldindi snpl. tidings, news. 

tlSr adj. usual, happening — 'hvat er titt um jjik?' what is the matter with you? tltt 

adv. often, quickly — 'sem tidast,' as quickly as possible. 

tiginn adj. of high rank. 

tigr sm. — 'fjorir tigir,' forty. 

til prp. w. gen. to; till; for (of use) — 'alt er t. vapna var,' everything that could be 

used as a missile; for (of object, intention) — 'brjota Iggg til mgrgjar,' break a leg 

to get at the marrow; with respect to — 'til vista var eigi gott,' they were not well 

off for provisions. 

til adv. too (of excess). 

til-vTsan sf. direction, guidance. 

tltt see tlSr. 

tlvi wm. god. 


160 An Icelandic Primer 

tjald sn. tent. 

tjugu-skggg sn. forked beard. 
tceka see taka. 
tok see taka. 

tgnn sf. 3, tooth. 

trani wm. crane. 

tre sn. tree. 

tro6a sv. tread. 

trog sn. trough. 

tros sn. droppings, rubbish. 

trua wf. faith — 'Jjat veit tr. mm at. . . ,' by my faith. 

trua wv. 2, w. dat. ofpers. believe, trust, rely on. 

tun sn. enclosure, dwelling. 

tveir num. two. 

tyna wv. 1, w. dat. lose. 

typpa wv. tie in a top-knot. 

|)a see sa. 
l)a 5eel)iggja. 

J)a flJv. then. 

t)aer 5ee sa. 

J)ak6r see l3§kja. 

]9akka wv. 3, w. occ. of thing and dat. ofpers. thank; requite, reward. 

J)ambar-sk§lfir sm. bowstring-shaker (?). 

]9ann see sa. 

]9annig adv. thither; so [= |)ann veg]. 

J)ar flJv. there; then; 'J?, af,' etc., thereof. 'J)ar sem,' since, because. 'J)ar til,' until. 

t)arf 5ee Jiurfa. 

^at 5ee sa. 

J)au 5ee sa. 

Jjegar adv. at once. '|). er,' as soon as. 

l)gginn 5eel)iggja. 

J)ggja wv. lb, be silent. 

]3eim 5ee sa. 

JDcir, jDcirra see sa. 

]9§kja wv. lb, roof. 

jDgkkja wv. 1, notice. ^§kkjask, take pleasure in; accept. 

J)er see J)u. 

|)ess i'ee sa. 

Jdcss adv. w. comp. the, so much the. 

^essiprn. this. 

J)iggja sv. 5, receive. 

J)ik 5ee J)u. 

J)ing 5n. meeting, parliament. 

J)inn 5ee J)u. 


162 An Icelandic Primer 

J)it see J)u. 
J)jo6 sf. nation, race. 
J)0 adv. though, yet. 
jDQkS see ]9§kja. 

]9Qkk 5/ thanks, gratitude [J)akka]. 
J)ola wv. 2, endure, put up with. 
J)ora wv. 2, dare. 
J)Qrf 5/ need. 
t)orrinn see jDverra. 
J)Ott adv. though [= ]do at] . 
jDOtta see J)ykkja. 
t)raut see jDrjota. 
J)reifask wv. 3, grope, feel. 
J)reyta wv. 1, make exertions, try. 
J)ri6i adj. third. 
J)ri6jungr 5m. third. 
J)rTr Mwm. three. 

J)rjota 5V. 7, impers. w. ace. ofpers. come to an end, fail. 
J)ru6ugr a J/, mighty. 
J)u/jrn. thou. 

J)umlungr sm. thumb of glove. 
J)unn-vangi wm. temple (of head). 
J)ur6r sm. diminution. 
J)urfa swv. often impers. require, need. 
J)urr adj. dry. 
J)urs sm. giant. 
J)verra sv. 3, diminish. 
J)vers adv. across. 
J)vT see sa. 

J)vT aJv. therefore; w. compar the, so much the more. 
J)vTlikr adj. such. 

jDykkja wv. Ic, seen, be considered. 'J)ykkir einum fyrir,' there seems to be some- 
thing in the way, one hesitates, 'myndi mer fyrir Ip. T,' I should be displeased. l)ykk- 
jask, think. 

J)ykkr adj. thick, close. 
J)ynna wv. 1, make thin. ]9ynnask get thin. 
J)yrstr adj. (ptc.) thirsty. 


u-fcera wf. impassable place; fix, difficulty. 
u-fri6r sm. hostility, war. 

u-grynni sn. countless number [grunnr, 'bottom']. 
u-happ sn. misfortune. 
u-hreinn adj. impure. 

um prp. w. ace. around, about, over; of time in, at; of superiority beyond; con- 
cerning, about. 
um-ra6 sn. advice, help. 
um-sja sf care. 

una wv. 1, w. dat. be contented — 'u. ilia,' be discontented. 
undanprp. w. dat., adv. away (from). 
undarliga adv. strangely. 
undarligr adj. strange. 
undir prp. w. ace. and dat. under. 
undr sn. wonder. 
ungr adj. young. 
unninn see vinna. 
unz adv. until. 
upp adv. up. 

upp-ganga wf. boarding (ship). 
upp-haf 5«. beginning [hgfja]. 
upp-himinn sm. high heaven. 
uppi adv. up; at an end. 
ur6u see verSa. 

ut adv. out. comp. utar, outer, outwards, farther away. 
utan adv. outside; outwards. 
utan-fgr6 sf. journey abroad. 
utar see ut. 


164 An Icelandic Primer 

uti adv. outside, out on the sea. 
ut-lausn sf. ransom. 
u-vinr sm. enemy. 

vaegS sf. forbearance. 

vaenn adj. likely, to be expected. 

vaeri see vera. 

vaetr neut. nothing. 

vaka wv. 3, be awake, wake up. 

vakna wv. 3, awake. 

vald sn. power, control. 

val-kyrja sf. chooser of the slain, war-goddess [kjosa]. 

valr sm. corpses on the battle-field. 

van, sf. hope, expectation, probability. 

vandraeSa-skald sn. the 'awkward' poet, the poet who is difficult to deal with. 

vandraeSi snpl. difficulty. 

vangi wm. cheek. 

vanr adj. accustomed. 

vapn sn. weapon. 

vapna-burS sm. bearing weapons, shower of missiles. 

vapn-lauss adj. without weapons. 

var see vera. 

var sn. spring. 

var see ek. 

vara wv. 2, impers. w. ace. ofpers. — 'mik vardi,' I expected. 

var6 see verSa. 

varSi see v^rja. 

vargr sm. wolf. 

variSr see v^rja. 

varla adv. scarcely. 

varnaSr sm. goods, merchandise. 

varu see vera. 


166 An Icelandic Primer 

vatn sn. water. 

vaxa sv. 2, grow; increase. 

ve6r sn. weather. 

vegr sm. road; way, manner; direction, side; in composition, region, tract, land. 

veik see vikja. 

veit see vita. 

veita wv. 1, give, grant; make (resistance, etc.). 

v^kja wv. lb, wake [vaka]. 

vel sf. artifice, cunning. 

vglja wv. lb, choose. 

v§ndi see vgndr. 

ver see ek. 

vera sv. exist; remain, stay, happen; be. 'hvat latum hafdi verit,' what had caused 

the noise, v. at, be occupied with. 

ver6 sn. worth, value; price. 

verSa sv. 3, happen; happen to come. 'v. fyrir einum,' come in one's way, appear 

before one; become; come into being, be; 'v. til eins,' be ready for, undertake; w. 

infin. be obliged, must, 'nu er a orSit mikit fyrir mer,' now I have come into a great 

perplexity, difficulty, v. at, happen. 

verSr adj. worth; important. 

ver-gjarn adj. desirous of a husband, loose. 

verit see vera. 

vert see verSr. 

v§rja wv. lb, defend — 'v. baki,' defend with the back, turn one's back on. 

v§rja wv. lb, dress; lay out money, invest. 

verk sn. work, job. 

verr sm. man; husband. 

v§rr adv. comp. worse, superl. vgrst, worst. 

vergld sf. world. 

vestan adv. from the west. 'v. fyrir' w. gen. or ace, west of. 

vestr adv. westwards. 

vetr sm. winter; year. 

vgx see vaxa. 

v^xti see vQxtr. 

\id prp. w. ace. by, near; towards (of place and time); with (of various relations). 

w. dat. towards, at (laugh at, etc.); in exchange for, for. 

vT5a adv. widely, far and wide, on many sides. 

viSar-teinungr sm. tree-shoot, plant. 


vi6-brag6 sn. push. 

vi6r sm. 3, tree. 

vT6r adj. wide, broad. 

vi6-skipti snpl. dealings. 

vi6-taka wf. reception; resistance. 

vTgja wv. 1, consecrate, hallow. 

vTgr adj. warlike, able-bodied. 

viking sf. piracy, piratical expedition. 

vTkingr sm. pirate. 

vTkja sv. 6, turn, move, go. 

vilja swv. will. 

villi-eldr sm. wildfire, conflagration. 

vinatta wf. friendship. 

vinattu-mal snpl. assurances of friendship. 

vinna sv. 3, do, perform; win, conquer, vinnask til, suffice. 

vinr sm. 2, friend. 

virSing sf. honour [verSr]. 

visa wv. 2, w. dat. show, guide. 

vTss adj. wise; certain. 

vissa see vita. 

vist sf. 2, board and lodging; provisions. 

vit see ek. 

vita swv. know; be turned in a certain direction, v. fram, see into futurity. 

vTti sn. punishment, penalty. 

vTtis-horn sn. penalty-horn (whose contents were drunk as a punishment). 

vitkask wv. 3, come to one's senses. 

vitr (-ran) adj. wise. 

vQllr sm. 3, plain, field. 

vgndr sm. 3, twig, rod. 

vgrn sf. defence, resistance. 

vQxtr sm. 3, growth, stature. 

vreiSr = reidr. 

y6r see J)u. 

yfir prp. w. ace. and dat. over [ofan] . 

ymiss adj. various, different. 

ymr sm. rumbling noise. 

ytri adj. comp. outer, superl. yztr, outside(st) [ut]. 


170 An Icelandic Primer 

Part IV 

Proper Names 



Aki sm. 

Asa-J)orr sm. (divine) Thor. 

AstrlSr sf. 

AuSun sm. 

Baldr (-rs) sm. 

BarSi wm. 'the Ram' (name of a ship). 

Bil-sklrnir sm. 

BrTsinga-m§n sn. Freyja's necklace. 

Burizleifr sm. 

Dains-leif 5;/; relic of Dainn ['leif,' leaving, heritage]. 
Dana-konungr sm. king of the Danes. 
Danir smpl. the Danes. 
Dan-mgrk sf. 3, Denmark. 
Draupnir sm. 

Einarr sm. 
EindriSi wm. 
EirTkr sm. 
Erlingr sm. 

F§n-salr sm. 2. 

Finnr sm. 

Finskr adj. Finnish. 

Freyja wf. 

Freyr sm. 

Frigg sf. wife of Odin. 

Fulla wf. Frigg 's handmaid. 

Geira wf. 

Gimsar fpl. 

Gjallar-bru sf. the bridge over the river GjqII. 

GJQll sf. 'the Resounder,' the river of Hell. 

Green-land sn. Greenland. 

Gullin-bursti wm. 'Golden-bristle.' 

Gull-toppr sm. 'Gold-top.' 

174 An Icelandic Primer 

Ha-ey sf. 'High-island.' 

Hakon sm. 

Hall-fre6r sm. 

Haraldr sm. 

HeSinn sm. 

Heim-dallr sm. 

Hgl sf. the goddess of the infernal regions. 

H§r-mo6r sm. 

midr sf. ['hildr,' war]. 

Hja6ninga-vTg sn. battle of the Hjadnings. 

Hjarrandi wm. 

HloriSi wm. the Thunderer, Thor. 

Hggni wm. 

Hring-horni wm. 'Ring-prowed.' 

Hyrningr sm. 

Hyrrokin sf. 

HgSr sm. 

is-land sn. Iceland. 

island-f§r6 sf. journey to Iceland. 

isl^nzkr adj. Icelandic. 

Joms-borg sf. 

Joms-vTkingar smpl. the pirates of Jomsborg. 

Kol-bJQrn sm. 

Laufey sf. 
Litr sm. 
Loki wm. 

Mo6-gu6r sf. 
Mceri wf 

Nanna wf. 
Nepr sm. 

NjarSar see NjgrSr. 
NJQrSr sm. 


Noa-tun snpl. 

Noregr sm. Norway [= norS-vegr]. 

Qku-J)orr sm. Thor (the driver) [aka]. 
Olafr sm. 
06inn sm. Odin. 
Orkn-eyjar sfpl. Orkneys. 

Roma-borg sf. Rome. 

Rum-f§rli wm. pilgrim to Rome [fara]. 

Rgskva wf. 

Sax-land sn. Saxony, Germany. 


SigriSr sf. 

Sig-valdi wm. 

Skjalgr sm. 

Skrymir sm. 

Sleipnir sm. 

SlT6rug-tanni wm. [tQnn]. 

Scenskr adj. Swedish. 

Sveinn sm. 

SvTa-konungr sm. king of Sweden. 

SvTar smpl. Swedes. 

SvTa-v§ldi sn. Sweden [vald]. 

SvT-J)jo5 sf. Sweden. 

SvQlSr (-rar) sf. island of Svolder, near Riigen. 

Tann-gnjostr i'm. [tQnn]. 
Tann-grisnir sm. [tQnn]. 
Tryggvi wm. 'Trusty.' 

Pjalfi wm. 

I»orir sm. 

I»or-k§ll sm. 

Porr sm. Thor. 

Por-steinn sm. 

Pru6-vangar smpl. 'plains of strength.' 

176 An Icelandic Primer 

Prymyr sm. 
pQkk sf. 

Ulfr sm. 
Utgar6a-loki wm. 

Ut-gar5r sm. Ut-gar6ar pi. 'outer enclosure,' world of the giants. 

Vanir smpl. race of Gods. 

Var sf. goddess of betrothal and marriage. 

Vest-firzkr adj. of the west firths (in Iceland). 

VTk sf. 'the Bay,' the Skagerak and the Christiania §ord. 

Vinda-sn§kkja wf Wendish ship. 

Vind-land sn. Wendland. 

Vindr smpl. the Wends. 

Ving-J)orr sm. name of Thor.